The most common manifestation is the linear perspective. In this type, “all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye-level of the viewer” (Kleiner &. Mamiya, 2006, p.874), which is the horizon line of the picture. Associated parts of the painting are depicted in smaller sizes, portraying increasing distance from the viewer. Linear perspective clearly defines a physical point of view, showing the “location, vantage and orientation of the viewer” (Cartage.org, 2002) as accurately as it depicts the physical form of the objects in view, in the composition. Linear perspective is one of the significant innovations of European art, with a great impact on the visual arts in the west from the 15th to the 19th centuries.
Perspective in visual arts provides the perception of the scene from a single, fixed viewpoint. It is created by various techniques. Parallel lines converge as they go further away from the viewer, objects become smaller as they recede into the distance, and in the far background colors look less intense and gain a bluish tinge (Gibson,1978).
surface of the ground, the horizontal lines of the buildings in rows, and the visual angles at which the buildings are placed in the composition contribute to the illusion of space and depth. Integrative and multi-point perspectives occur as from a corner view of a building instead of a front view, as on the right in Figure 1. above (Cartage.org, 2002).
On the other hand, Harrison and Wood (2003, p.318) oppose the perspectival representation of space, which they consider to be “a rigid three-dimensional view of the world based on the laws of Euclidean geometry”. The authors state that by using perspective as a key concept in paintings, the world is confined to a cubic box, and seen as a pyramidal form within the picture plane.