Geography

United Nations peacekeeping

The success or failure of any peacekeeping operation depends on the people and the authorities of the place were the peacekeeping mission is being operated. The UN, who operates these missions, should have experienced and efficient staff to handle these operations. In spite of this effort for a more systematic move, the presentation of peacekeeping operations has been impromptu. This system was designed to stand-in for the collective security system, which was hindered by the stalemate in the Security Council between the permanent members. Over the past thirty years international peacekeeping, has a diverse record of success. The opposition of third party states and other subnationals has been one of the main reasons for the failure of peacekeeping operations. These two play a key role either in refusing to stop any violence and also trying to attack the peacekeepers. The failure of some of the peacekeeping operations can be attributed to these. To make peacekeeping operations a success, all parties should stop violence, and should work hard and wish to maintain peace. The superpowers of the world like USA and Russia also play an important role in determining the success or failure of a peacekeeping operation. (Diehl 1988, p.503)A clear mandate of the proposed mission is very necessary to work efficiently on the mission. If a mandate were not clear, it would affect the efficiency of the work to be put in a mission. The way a peacekeeping operation is organized and the financial requirements of an operation also play a vital role in determining the efficiency of the operation, and the operation may be delayed due to the inefficiency. (Diehl 1988, p.503)

The geography and the neutrality of the area in which the operation is to be undertaken have an impact on the success of the operation. If the areas of operation effectively divided the opponents, were not easily susceptible to attack and allowed easy inspection, peacekeeping operations can perform much better in such conditions. The absence of the above conditions could create problems even in the most minor cases. Maintaining neutrality is also very important for an operation, if the operation is biased in favor of a particular party, support from other parties that are interested could be withdrawn. (Diehl 1988, p.503)

One of the key point which could be used to evaluate the success or failure of an operation, would be to assess whether the purpose of the mission according to the mandate has been achieved or not. Another way of evaluation could be to assess the undertakings of the mission, like how many people were rehabilitated, how many cease-fires were achieved. Comparison of the present state of an operation and the situation in the absence of the operation can also give a clear picture of how a state will be in the absence of the UN peacekeeping forces. (Diehl 1997, p.152)
Four relative ways to assess whether an operation is a success or a failure are, comparison with mandate of the mission, comparison with other peacekeeping missions, the impact of the mission on the concerned state, and the impact on the United Nations. The last two methods are especially useful, because of their relevance to the concerned state to which the mission was organized. The success of any peacekeeping mission depends on the mindset of the people in that state, violence will only lead to their disaster, accepting a peaceful lifestyle helps them in the long run. (Ratner 1997, p.154)
A relief mission organized by the United Nations, The United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR), in between 1993 to 1996, can be used as an example of a failed peacekeeping mission by the United Nations. The main objective of the operation was to reduce the pressure between the Hutu-dominated Rwanda’s management and the Tutsi radicals. To protect the cease-fire between the government of Hutu and the Tutsi rad

Back To Top