The inclusion or exclusion of paraphilias in the DSMUltimately the issue of whether to include paraphilia in the DSM or not is a question of degrees. What is meant by this is with regards to the terminology and distinction of whether a paraphilia is a psychotic disorder were is merely a defining characteristic that can provide distress or impairment the individual or harm to others. In such a way, predilection to a particular type of thought process, or actions associated with it, are argued not to be in and of themselves a type of disorder which can be included in the DSM. Accordingly, the type of decision was reached within the DSM-5 by which subject matter experts sought to make type of distinction between paraphilia and paraphilia disorders. In such a way a paraphilia disorder was defined as something that ultimately causes harm to the individual or to another. Comparatively, paraphilia in and of itself merely represent the type of attraction or preference that this not actively engage in a level of harm to the individual or impair the way in which he/she thinks or cause a direct level of harm to anyone else.1. What are the advantages and limitations of viewing addictive behavior as diseases? As learned behaviors? As immoral and sinful?With regards the ultimate advantage of viewing and addictive behavior as a to seize, the reader should understand that within such a framework, the medical community and science in general is able to seek to find physical and emotional means by which such an action can be corrected. Obviously, this represents a net benefit to approaching the understanding of addictive behaviors as diseases. Comparatively, one of the key drawbacks is with regards to the removal of a level of personal responsibility that would otherwise be engaged with if the individual could not have the cop out of labeling whatever addictive behavior they are facing as a disease. Similarly, the advantage of understanding addiction through learned behavioral framework allows for stakeholders within the process to seek to engage with the individual who is suffering from addictive behavior and provide a cognitive behavioral process of re-learning which can undo many of the prior ills that have been affected. With regards to the negative impacts that such a learned behavioral framework Fact, this again relates back to the level of personal responsibility that the individual who exhibits addictive behavior can express. Due to the fact that they are able to point a finger of blame and guilt definitively at the individual from they learned it, it is oftentimes the case that these individuals have little or no desire to improve upon their given situation or admit the degree of culpability themselves. Similarly, with regards to viewing addiction as immoral or sinful, this has a benefits of engaging a high level of responsibility and culpability on the individual himself/herself. However, it also has the drawback of creating a situation in which the individual ultimately feels helpless to correct or impact upon the prior behavior that has led them to the addiction in question.3. What would be the advantages and disadvantages of legalizing specific illicit substances? Provide a response that goes beyond personal opinion.One of the key aspects that society has grappled with within the past several decades is with regards to why certain illicit substances are considered illegal whereas equally harmful substances such as tobacco or out all are not. There are many advantages and disadvantages to legalizing several illicit substances that are currently illegal within the United States. The obvious drawback towards engaging in such an action is the varying level to which such an action would encourage further legalization of harder and more damaging drugs once the initial steps have been taken for legalization of less harmful drugs. In such a way, if the initial intent was to legalize marijuana and a few other nominally harmful drugs, the question that many individuals might ask is why ecstasy would be left out of such a list. This creates something of a slippery slope by which it would be difficult for legislators and law enforcement officials to regulate any illicit substances that currently exist within the nation’s drug culture. However, with regards the direct positive impacts of legalization, there are two positive ones that must be discussed. The first of which is with regards to the fact that the government would immediately be able to tax the proceeds of whatever illicit substances had been legalized. This not only would provide a level of revenue for the system as a whole, it would also allow some of this revenue to be put back into community programs and to facilitate addiction counseling and services for those individuals struggling with substance abuse issues. Similarly, removing the illegal stigma would allow law enforcement individuals to free up a large number of personnel that have been engaged in a failed war on drugs within the United States.