The literature review discusses how a major impediment to IVF success rate initially was male infertility which has been successfully overcome with the development of techniques such as subzonal insemination (SUZI) and partial zona dissection (PZD). Standard IVF procedures are discussed in comparison with the newer techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and micro epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA). The review utilises recent literature to discuss in depth all aspects of IVF and associated treatment methods including current laboratory techniques and procedures for embryo culture. effectiveness of embryo transfer (ET) vs blastocyst transfer (BT). sequential media for culturing embryos to the later stage of the blastocyst. Data available on the adverse perinatal outcomes, birth defects and maternal health risks following IVF procedure is discussed.All the available data from the literature on the growth factors that affect embryo culture are discussed. Advances made in ART procedures that have yielded enhanced success rates with fewer transferred embryos, thereby reducing the risk of multiple pregnancies are elaborated upon. Embryo scoring systems for assessment of embryo quality based on early cleavage rate or on pronuclear morphology of the zygote that is helpful in the selection of embryos with the best implantation potential in embryo transfer are explained. New guidelines were issued by The British Fertility Society (BFS) and the Association of Clinical Embryologists (ACE) in September 2008 to help UK clinics introduce an elective single embryo transfer (eSET) policy for IVF treatment. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) recommends a single- or two- embryo (cleavage-stage or blastocyst) transfer except in extraordinary circumstances.Against this backdrop, literature comparing the effectiveness of single-embryo versus double-embryo transfer in IVF/ICSI cycles with respect to implantation is considered.