The Development of Art Romanesque and Gothic Architecture Romanesque and Gothic Architecture styles were employed during the medieval ages. The times were marked by the establishment of educational institutions that enabled access to education and literacy to the wider population. Progress was also seen in sculpture, art and architecture which largely dominated the church construction. Romanesque architecture preceded gothic and were both found in buildings such as churches and cathedral in Chartes, France, Belgium and Germany. Romanesque architecture has its roots in Rome and was mainly practiced during the 11th and 12th Centuries. Synagogues, cities and university buildings also utilized these styles. Their differences were seen in terms of the radiating chapels, arch type, vault, elevation, exterior, sculptural decoration, and mood (Fitchen 1981). Gothic architecture was characterized by ribbed vaults while that of Romanesque used groin vaults. In gothic there were pointed arches in arcades, windows, and doors whereas in Romanesque they were rounded ones. Flying buttresses were seen in gothic buildings while in Romanesque buttresses were shallowly projected.The Pisa Cathedral Group (1153-1360)Built during the Romanesque period, the building is outstanding and famous in the world. It has the likeness of other Basilica churches consisting of double aisles, and timber roof. The columns are joined by stacked arches, with red and white marble on the bands outside. Its aesthetics are the general proportions and delicate ornamental features. The Vaults mainly chatracterised the Romanesque era as they were developed through innovation so as to replace wooden roofs which were prone to catching fire. Salisbury CathedralGothic Architecture was concerned with sculpture, architecture, manuscripts and music. The two main structural concerns are pointed arches and ribbed vaults. One such innovation is the Rayyonant style which concentrated on decoration. Other characteristics are heavy colorings of the glasses, carvings and paintings as seen in Saint Chapelle building. Tall and large buildings were built to complicate their plans. Tall buildings were accompanied by thin walls, as seen in Salisbury Cathedral. Salisbury Cathedral is an Anglican church formerly called the cathedral church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It was constructed in the early English Gothic style. Its uniqueness is the towering central spire in the UK and world oldest functioning clock. It was built with highly sophisticated design under the guidance of Richard Poore, the Bishop of Salisbury.Sainte Chapelle in Paris, FranceSainte Chapelle was constructed under the commission of King Louis IX of France in the second half of 13th century using the gothic architectural style. It’s characterized by enormous stained glass windows and richly painted interior. It was built for the purposes of accommodating individuals acted and demonstrated the instances of the passion of Christ to treasure His sufferings and works on earth. Its architect influenced major designs that were employed later by other churches. Structural Innovations in Gothic ArchitectureChurch construction was limited to house of worship with the belief that the world would end ten centuries years after the birth of Christ. Economically and socially, it was perceived that the church would lure passers-by and generate great revenues for the people. Colonization and loyalty to political parties facilitated the shift for instance. Normandy began to build Gothic after its conquest by Philip Augustus. The French monarchy influenced gothic architecture: it was considered the French style in the fourteenth century. Gothic engineers allowed the proliferation of windows, thin walls and soaring ceilings as well as pointed arches that were believed to carry more weight than the rounded ones. The ceilings were filled with light in order to encourage the congregation to look upwards. The mass was conducted in Latin (Betts 1993).Works CitedBetts Richard. Structural Innovation and Structural Design in Renaissance Architectur. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians: University of California Press. 1993. Print. Fitchen, John. The Construction of Gothic Cathedrals: A Study of Medieval Vault Erection. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1981. Print.Graham, Thomas. Byzanite and Romanesque Architecture. Jackson Press. 2008.