The Anatomy of the Human Brain The protective features of the brain, or also called the meninges, are the (1) pia meter, (2) arachnoid, and (3) dura meter. The meninges enclose the spinal cord and brain (Greenfield 1998). The below figure shows the positions of the brain’s three protective membranes:*image taken from Google picturesThe primary role of meninges, along with the cerebrospinal fluid, is to safeguard the central nervous system (Greenfield 1998). Pia Mater It is an extremely thin layer made up of fibrous tissue enclosed in its external portion by an area of leveled cells assumed to be fluid-resistant. Basically, the pia mater strongly sticks to the exterior of the spinal cord and brain (Nolte 2009). By enclosing the cerebrospinal fluid the pia mater works with the other protective membranes to shelter the brain. Arachnoid The arachnoid is a slackly looking sac with a varying expanse, in particular areas fairly small and in others large, between its barriers and nervous system’s exterior (Nolte 2009). Dura Mater It is the outermost protective membrane, and a thick, sturdy, and solid layer. It can be considered as a case that surrounds the arachnoid. it is also believed to have been adapted to fulfill a number of functions (Solly 2009). Blood-Brain Barrier It is a mechanism of cellular transport processes and a physical fortification. It sustains homeostasis by limiting the access of damaging substances from the blood, and by facilitating the access of basic nutrients (Nolte 2009). Basically, the blood-brain barrier resembles a defensive canal that is always closed.Cerebrospinal Fluid It is formed from arterial blood by an integrated mechanism of active transfer, pinocytosis, and diffusion (Solly 2009). It is a transparent liquid that plugs and encloses the spinal cord and brain and functions as an involuntary protection from shock. The precise process of the production of the cerebrospinal fluid is vague (Solly 2009). After coming from the brain’s ventricles, it is perhaps seeped into the membranes of the nervous system. The fluid is constantly produced. It is later on sucked up by the veins (Nolte 2009). The cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain and lubricates the enclosing spinal cord and brain. when a person sustains a head injury the cerebrospinal fluid functions as a protection, moderating the shock by scattering the impact (Nolte 2009). Functions of the Hypothalamus It functions as a regulator of water and food intake, motor function, homeostasis, endocrine function, autonomic function, and the sleep-wake phase (Greenfield 1998).Functions of the Brain Stem It serves an important function in consciousness, stimulation, and attention. Information moving in and out of the human body crosses the brain stem en route to or from the brain (Greenfield 1998). Functions of the Medulla It functions as a regulator of digestion, circulation, blood pressure, heart rate, and breathing. This region is also where the cycles of sleep are controlled (Greenfield 1998). Functions of the Pons It functions as an artery for transmission of numerous signals back and forth the cerebellum and cerebrum. This acts as the source of different nerves in the body, comprising the major cranial nerves (Nolte 2009). Functions of the Midbrain It acts as a regulator of vocal cords and respiratory muscles, controller of nasal and oral passages, or pharyngeal, mandible, lips, tongue, and palate (Solly 2009).Functions of Cerebellums It functions as a processor of input from other regions of sensory receptors, spinal cord, and the brain to give accurate timing for even, synchronized functioning of the skeletal muscular system (Solly 2009).ReferencesGreenfield, S. The Human Brain: A Guided Tour. Basic Books, 1998.Nolte, J. The human brain: an introduction to its functional anatomy. Mosby/Elsevier, 2009.Solly, S. The Human Brain. BiblioBazaar, 2009.