Studies

Students should be able to understand and explain the main theories of organizational management and leadership and their application

Management comprised of the following functions namely planning, organising, directing, staffing, co-ordinating, reporting and budgeting (Thenmozhi, n.d.).
The X-Y theory was first conceptualised by Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, in the year of 1960. It refers the statutory and simple rules of managing people. There are two theories X and Y. In X theory, the nature of the persons are lazy. Mostly they dislike work and try to avoid it therefore most of the employees are subject to negative reinforcement and threatened by it. Such persons avoid responsibility and prefer to be directed. The exactly opposite picture can be shown in Theory Y. Here, people accept and seek responsibility. To achieve the organisational objective people usually apply self control and direction. Even, they are also rewarded for their commitment (Business Ball, n.d.).
William Ouchi had developed Z theory in 1981. Basically this theory is referred to as ‘Japanese’ management style. This theory advocates the combination of theory Y along with the modern Japanese management. It indicates a large amount of freedom and trust with worker and it has been assumed that workers have a strong interest and loyalty (Business Ball, n.d.).
A series of studies had been conducted at the Western Electronic Hawthorn Works from 1927 to 1932. Here, the professor Elton Mayo had experienced the impact of work conditions in the employees’ productivity. He had started this through examining the environmental and physical influence of the work place and then he moved towards the psychological aspects and its impact on the employee motivation. The outcome of the study exhibits that the employee productivity is fuelled by the psychological stimulus.
It can be applied in the practical life also. Suppose, a management trainee has joined in an organisation and the management provide him training, separate work code etc. Thus, silently the

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