Richelsons The Wizards of Langley

Henceforth, taking lessons from the experiences of World War II, American bureaucracy started to believe correctly that they needed a dedicated intelligence agency for collecting information from and operating across foreign countries. Hence, the Central Intelligence Agency was established in 1947 by contemporary US President Truman. “The new agency would report to the President and beheaded by the Director of Counter-Intelligence (DCI).” (Richelson, 1)
By helping the reader to comprehend the purpose of the CIA in a concise manner, Richelson actually focuses on the background of DS&amp.T. In order to implement optimal technological methods to gather intelligence and military information from foreign countries, the CIA formed the Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI) in December 1948. This opened the era of bureaucratic reorganization within the CIA, which successfully catered with the changing needs of satellite-based foreign intelligence with the launch of CORONA spy satellite 1960. In the next two years, other departments like the Office of Special Activities, Office of Research and Development, etc. were merged into one organization. In this way, Deputy Directorate of Research (DDR) was formed in 1962, while maintaining OSI still as a part of the Directorate of Operations. (Richelson, 40-61)
So at this point, while reading The Wizards of Langley, it becomes clear that the American leadership was unable to create a coherent organization for harnessing technology-based espionage even in the early 1960s. However, this dangerous bureaucratic indecisiveness did not prevail for too long. By the year 1965, OSI was merged into DDR and the organization was rechristened as DS&amp.T.

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