Radio and mobile communication

tems developed in the first generation category were incompatible with one another for the reason that all they were operating at different frequencies. For this reason, mobile users had to change their mobiles when they moved to different countries. Since this generation was based on FDMA standard that why it supported only limited roaming and capacity. Hence, in order to deal with the problems of 1st generation, a new generation of mobile computing evolved in the 1990s known as 2nd generation of mobile networks (Joshi, 2012. Patil, et al., 2012).The design process of 1st generation cellular networks started in 1980 but the actual implementations of these networks appeared in early 1991 and continued until the 2nd generation appeared. Basically, this generation included the majority of currently used ubiquitous cellular networks. As compared to 1st generation networks, 2nd generation networks depended completely on analog FM and FDMA. Some of the well-known techniques used by 2G standards included Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) and digital modulation formats with Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA). These systems are normally known as Personal Communications Service (PCS) in the United States. In this scenario, three TDMA standards (GSM, IS-136, and PDC) and one CDMA standard (IS-95) are believed to be the well-known standards of 2G networks (Joshi, 2012. Patil, et al., 2012).One of the major problems with 2G technologies was that it used circuit-switched data modems for this reason data users were limited to a single circuit-switched voice station. As a result, data transfer rate reduced to a very low rate. In fact, the majority of 2G networks supported a data transfer rate of 10 Kbps for all kinds of users. In this scenario, 2G networks were unable to support sophisticated short messaging capabilities and effective Internet browsing and. Short Messaging Service (SMS) is a popular feature of GSM. Thus, in order to help 2G standards overcome

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