Sociology

Race and Ethnic Relations

10

2500

The sociology of race and ethnic relations is an area of this discipline which studies the political, social and economic relations between ethnicities and races at various levels (Chai, 2004). This paper will concentrate on a fussy issue relating to race and ethnic relations and examine how policy addresses (or does not) the condition. This essay will also build up on materials and discussions from class relating school segregation, housing, affirmative action, the Dream act, incarceration and gentrification disparities and in addition, include a sociological analysis and research on these relations. Racism is the belief that diverse natural traits in human racial groups validate discrimination. This vice is popularly associated with illegal activities like mass murder, racial supremacy, genocide denial, exploitation, separatism, hatred, extremism, xenophobia and vigilantism. On the other hand, ethnicity refers to a group of individuals whose members recognize each other through a common heritage, habitually comprising of a common culture, language and ancestry. On the contrary, the ethnicity concept differs modestly from race, which is defined as the grouping based on priory acknowledged biological criteria (Chai, 2004). The study of race and ethnic relations rotates under topics related to residential segregation, racism and other social procedures between different ethnic and racial groups (Esser, 1985). These factors enable sociology to interact with other areas in the field of sociology such as social psychology, stratification and postcolonial theory. At the political policy, race and ethnic relations is discussed in terms of multiculturalism or assimilations. At the academic inquiry level, these relations can be discussed by experiences of individual racial-ethnic groups or in overarching theoretical issues. The problem related to racial and ethnic discrimination has vastly grown in many societies all around the globe. Some of the most prominent reasons include legal discrimination, slavery and segregation especially during the civil war period. While numerous individuals and societies continue to fight these vices, there are those who are directly promoting racial disunity and mistreatments of other kinds. Tragically, these misdeeds are always directed to the black society who is viewed as inferior in the global society. Moreover, racial tolerance continually traces a clear trend in the American society. Research shows that, during the past few years, there has been a noteworthy optimistic change, in perceptions of both African Americans and the whites’ society regarding the issue of race relations. Most of these issues are adversely relevant to racial minorities who face difficult issues concerning health care, poverty status and quality education. Poverty status is the chief issue linked with race and ethnic relations (Costello &amp. Adrian, 2001). High inequality in income trends is the main cause of increased poverty levels especially among the black society. Relevant studies show that individuals in such an economic class face isolation which primarily contributes to high levels of racial and ethnic segregation hence, development of geographically concentrated poverty. This isolation is a primary cause of lowered incomes, fewer marriages, increased unwed childbearing and reduced employment opportunities. Somehow this poverty statistics are a reflection of the increased immigration rates (Gianni, Lemmi, Francesca &amp. Vijay, 2011). De Facto segregation is the separation of individuals into racial groups in daily life. This factor is so crucial since it applies to activities such as using a public toilet, drinking water from a fountain, eating in a restaurant, going to movies, attending school

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