Mechanical

March to the Sea Civil War Fortifications

Among those, the first attack took place on March 3, 1863, in Bryan County, Georgia as ordered by Adm. Samuel F. Du Pont who intended to test their mechanical appliances by attacking the Confederate defenses. The attempt proved that an earthen fort like McAllister could not be destroyed easily by ironclads. History The fort is named after Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Longworth McAllister who built this in 1861 at Genesis Point. During the Civil War (1861-65), it ensured the protection of the southern flank of Savannah from the U.S. Navy. The fort also provided defense for the Savannah, Albany and Gulf Railroad Bridge, Ogeechee basin plantations etc for the survival. Fort McAllister mainly defended naval attack from the Union force, and it possessed very effective cannonballs and large-caliber guns that could destroy warships. As per reports, despite the latest naval warship technology deployed by the Union force, the fort survived seven naval attacks mainly because of its exceptional earthen construction. Features Obviously, Fort McAllister was strong enough to withstand each attack that involved heavy bombards. In addition to this advantage, some other factors also strengthened the Confederates. For instance, as Chuber (1996) notes, the U.S. … By 1864, the Confederates had equipped McAllister with a considerable amount of guns and other war apparatus. It possessed ‘four smoothbore 32-pounders, one riffled 32-pounder, two 10 inch Columbiads, 24 pounder, six 6-pound howitzers, one 12-pounder Napoleon, and many more’3. One of the notable defense strategies of the Confederate was that it anchored its line to the Ogeechee River and guarded Savannah from the Union force. Savannah was well prepared to meet all levels of contingency, for it had already stockpiled over 1,000 pounds of bacon, 2200 pounds of bread, 40 gallons of molasses, 50 pounds of candles, and a good supply of salt in the bombproofs4. The Confederate commander George W. Anderson was determined not to surrender McAllister to the enemy. The result was a terrible face to face attack and assault. Fort McAllister was finally captured On December 13, 1864 by General Sherman. According to many, the secret of the fort’s sustainability was that unlike other forts, it was entirely an earthwork. This admittedly marked a new era of fortification that utilized only natural materials like sand, timber, mud, earth, etc. other than stone, bricks, or masonry work of any kind5. Therefore, as compared to many other forts, it lacked aesthetic sensibilities as well. However, the fort later gained the appreciation of many military leaders for its better resistance as opposed to famous masonry works like Fort Pulaski. Another comparison is that when the Fort Pulaski took nearly 18 years and over one million dollars to construct, Fort McAllister was built in a few moths and was more effective than the former6 . Fort McAllister taught officials new lessons on

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