Management DilemmasNameInstitutional AffiliationManagement DilemmasPart I: Research Questions1. Should student athletes receive a stipend by the universities as reimbursement for participating in sports? Are there policies under the ISSF that guide on how best students should be compensated for their participation in different sports?2. What challenges do coaches face in managing their respective teams? Is there an approved ISSF standard management structure that would allow coaches to participate and interact more with their players such that they are not only constrained to their managerial duties?Part II: Research TopicProblem StatementProfessional athletes earn large sums of money, though considered unethical; due to the fact that most of the times these athletes are students who are “exploited”. The estimated value rose through college athletics is considered to be roughly more than a billion dollars yearly, with this revenue being generated from an estimated 25 football schools and 64 basketball schools respectively (Brown & Williams, 2019). The concern raised is that the students do not get to see the money earned; but instead are offered athletic scholarships, allowing them to get free college education. The concerning factor is that most students use this opportunity as a chance to qualify for professional leagues, without considering the beneficial factors that their education offers. They are continuously to sacrifice their class and study hours such that they can practice and travel for their sports (Brown & Williams, 2019). Even though a scholarship seems like a good deal for some of these college athletes, what criteria is used to reward those athletes who are often viewed as celebrities and exploited for their affiliation with different institution to earn money for them?Quite often, managers are faced with the dilemma of relating with their athletes mainly because they are absorbed in managerial duties that limit their interactions with their players. As a result, the element of teamwork is ignored and disregarded, leading to lack of communication, lack of trust, and continued conflict, which may affect the effectiveness of the team (Rollnick, Fader, Breckon, & Moyers, 2019). Sometimes the coaches aspect of caring is viewed as interference because there is no connection between the players and their coach, with coaches feeling left out of most decisions made by the players. This in mind, the study focuses on finding new strategies that can be applied by all coaches in every sport, such that the aspect of unity and communication is achieved, with coaches participating more in their respective projects. Importance of the StudyGiven the dynamic scope of this industry, it is important to do more research to understand the depth of the dilemma within the industry, with the use of previous and current research to provide insight on different perspectives about the industry. Global advancements in fields such as medicine, technology, and informatics create valid cause to conduct regular research in the industry, tracing elements of change that may be important in mitigating managerial dilemmas. The research is beneficial to aspiring sports managers as well as young athletes who wish to venture into different sports within the industry. Part III: Review of Literature- Additional Sources1. There are conflicting opinions on whether the revenue gathered from the ISSF and NCAA should be used to pay college education for student-athletes. The NCAA us against the idea mostly because they feel that the athletes are at risk of exploitation, and prefer using the funds to contract coaches who would be posted in different facilities. However, the risks that these student athletes put themselves in through injury and the high competition gives an uncertain thought about the future of their athletic careers. Literature source Governance and Policy making in the sports industry is essential in the structure and function in different sports, similar to those within the workplace. The journal demonstrates how individual sports organizations are what make up the industry, raising questions on policy issues and ethical concerns raised daily. Additionally, managers have different perspectives that give a glimpse of the impact of governance and policies on sports professionals. The journal, therefore, helps understand the perspective of the sports industry through giving examples of some real-world case studies. Literature source The article gives a systematic analysis of how coaches play a role in unintended conflict in sports, giving an example of New Zealand rugby and cricket coaches. Through a systematic approach, the article gives an example of a model derived from Edgar Schein’s three model theoretical framework, which uses previous beliefs and values, artifacts, and assumptions in management. The framework was designed to change the culture of management from one that encourages violence to one that encourages integrity and honor. Literature source Objectives1. To determine whether student-athletes should receive compensation or stipend for generating revenue for their institutions.2. To determine appropriate strategies coaches can use to be more involved in their projects. ReferencesBrown, K., & Williams, A. (2019). Out of Bounds: A Critical Race Theory Perspective on Pay for Play. J. Legal Aspects Sport, 29, 30. Retrieved from, D. (2019). Pay for Play. Retrieved from, M. A., & MacLean, J. C. (2017). Governance and policy in sport organizations. Routledge. Retrieved from, S., Fader, J., Breckon, J., & Moyers, T. B. (2019). Coaching Athletes to be Their Best: Motivational Interviewing in Sports. Guilford Press. Retrieved from, K. (2017). The role of sports coaches in creating culture: A dysfunctional case. InSports, Peacebuilding and Ethics(pp. 29-38). Routledge. Retrieved from

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