Karl Marx and Economic Determinism

Consequently, the upper class is bound to surrender their resources in order to give way to the lower classes eventually, which is actually the law of nature for the preservation and stability of the very foundations of society. His magnificent Das Kapital (1867) is regarded as the Bible of Socialism, which reflects upon political, social and economic history of struggle between the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat since ever. Marxism argues that human history is replete with the evidences of the very reality that economic efforts are vehemently essential for the survival of humans in general. Marx believes that laws are the product of class oppression, and that laws would have to disappear with the advent of communism. (Zimmerman, 2009:96) Hence, all the developments, being made for centuries, are directly reliant upon the economic activities people get involved into and financial gains they maintain or generate, out of the hard work conducted by the workers on the one hand, and the volume of profit earned by the producer or investor on the other. Consequently, the entire series of achievements and progresses have been made by humans are certainly the product of the struggle inducted by the workers and the investment made by the producers rather than that of intellectual capabilities and philosophical vision. Hence, economic efforts at individual and collective scales are the basic reason for the survival and growth of the individuals and nations. Marx’s theory is based firmly upon the idea of a relationship between society and nature. Its fundamental concept is human labor, viewed in a historical perspective. it is the developing interchange between man and nature, which at the same time creates, and progressively transforms, social relationships among men. (Bottomore, 1973: 38-39) Marxist perspective submits to state that laborers, workers and peasants toil hard from dawn to dusk, but obtain almost nothing in return. On the other hand, the industrialists, factory owners, feudal lords and investors enjoy themselves with the lion’s share out of the profit generated through industrial units and produced from the cultivation of lands. Since it is workers, who make rich investment of time and energies for the enhancement of productivity, they should also have respectable and handsome share in the profit that is entirely dependent of their sincere hard efforts and dedication. However, a large proportion of the laborers and peasants remained poor and downtrodden due to scarcity of resources, including food, proper education, appropriate recreational and career opportunities. they are unable to gain recognition as well as luxurious life in society. Renowned naturalist theorist and father of modern theory of evolution Charles Darwin has also elaborated the same notion in his remarkable work On the Origin of Species (1859) that only the fittest and strongest living-beings have the power (and perhaps right too) to survive and reproduce, which is actually the law of nature. Based on his in-depth research on various species, including humans, birds, mammals, reptiles and insects, Darwin concludes that the species containing adoptability of embracing change are sure to survive and multiply by giving birth to their young ones. Hence, the same genes have been traveling since the creation of the universe to the future generations, and contain almost same characteristics with

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