“Homeland Security Preparedness &amp

Prevention"During the long Cold War period, the Soviet Union and other communist countries were considered the prime threat for the US and its security policies were driven accordingly.
9/11 and ensuing events showed that terrorism and security threats had morphed into a cross-national and non-state character. The threat could now come from anyone anywhere and target US interests or installations globally. It also showed that fringe elements in the Islamic world were capable of planning and executing large terrorist strikes in any country of the world. These fringe elements were not stated armies or governments but extremists who found sanctuaries in weak countries with a poor record of governance. Fertile grounds for developing these terrorists were also available where countries were slow in curbing extremist ideological thought within them.
The very nature of these terrorist groups and their cross-boundary methods necessitate building a government, public and private capacity which can plan for and respond to globally coordinated larger terrorist attacks like the 9/11 or smaller localized attacks like the Bali bombing (9/11 Commission Report, 2004: p. 365). The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States has written a comprehensive report on 9/11 tragedy. While this report deals with several areas, its discussion on devising a global strategy has been useful in looking at the broader picture while writing this paper. The Justice Management Division (JMD) of the Department of Justice created a sample Crisis Management Plan (CMP) that would act as a blueprint for future refinements. Similarly, Crisis Incidence Protocol developed by the Department of Justice in partnership with the University of Michigan lays down guidelines for developing responses to “critical incidences”.

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