History of Ancient Africa Zimbabwe Mali PreMuslim Ghana

Some of the countries that enjoyed great civilization in the Dark Continent before their colonization include Zimbabwe, Mali, and Pre-Muslim Ghana. The Great Zimbabwe The Great Zimbabwe is one of the ruined cities. The Great Zimbabwe that was once considered as the capital of the kingdom of Zimbabwe existed between 1100 and 1450 during its late Iron Age. The existence of Zimbabwe can be traced back in the eleventh century. The countries great history can as well be considered to have been constructed and well developed in the fourteenth century. The great Zimbabwe was the royal palace for the monarchy of the Zimbabweans. The monarchy was used as a seat for political power (Raftopoulos Mlambo 39). This country enjoyed numerous achievement including prominent wall features that were over five meters high that were constructed without mortar. Civilization of the ancient Zimbabwe was considered the most significant world civilization in the medieval period. Despite the great achievement or civilization that had been attained by the native Zimbabweans, several white settlers disputed and disgruntled such great civilization saying such degree of civilization could have not been achieved by this black nation. Most of imperialists including the British, Germans, and the Portuguese used their resources to dismiss civilization of the great Zimbabwe. They adamantly argued that there are some other more civilized nations in Zimbabwe. thus, the great achievements in that land (Raftopoulos Mlambo 172). However, the native had achieved the knowledge of art that they perfectly used to construct the monument: a fact that was greatly disputed by whites. Other than the monument that reflected the great achievement of the Zimbabweans, the great Zimbabwe had become an important center for both politics and commercial activities. In addition, the country had an extensive trading network and commercial activities. Notablely, Zimbabwe was a powerful center for political kingdom that had a central rule, which is approximated to have lasted for a period of 350 years that is between 1100 and 1450 AD. During this period, it is recorded in the historic books that the great Zimbabwe had accumulated much wealth that were misused by the European explorers, souvenir seekers, treasure hunters, and plunderers including Richard Hall (Raftopoulos Mlambo 139). It is recorded that European groups vandalized, destroyed, and hauled the artifacts that were found in the great civilization of Zimbabwe and later sent them to museums in Europe, South Africa, and America. Finally, the ancient Zimbabwe is remembered of its international or cross border trade. The trading items included iron, gold, tin, copper, cattle, and cowrie shells. The Zimbabwe traders in return exchanged for items including glassware from Syria, minted coin from Tanzania, Kilwa, and Persian alongside ceramic from Chinese people (Raftopoulos Mlambo 113). Pre-Muslim Ghana Ghana is one of the western kingdoms. It was founded along the upper Niger in the Fourth Century as federation of village states and the Soninke farmers inhabited it. According to some legends, Ghana was first ruled by Berber dynasty who was overthrown in the 700 A.D. During this period, Kaya Mughau led an uprising alongside his relatives, and managed to kill the last white ruler, and this is marked the establishment of the Soninke dynasty. Kaya was regarded a great warrior (Gocking

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