Research Hierarchy Level Journal Article Rationale for Selecting Journal Article 1. Systematic review and meta-analysis 1. Griffiths, P., Recio-Saucedo, A., Dall’Ora, C., Briggs, J., Maruotti, A., Meredith, P.,…Ball, J. (2018).The association between nurse staffing and omissions in nursing care: A systematic review.Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(7), 1474–1487. 1. This article is a great example of this level.The authors searched different key journals, libraries for articles that covered similar topics. They synthesized quantitative studies to extract correlations and associations. The results are combined results from individual studies that provide a rich, reliable and proven information that can be applied readily in evidence-based practice (Broomfield, 2016). 2. Randomizes controlled trial (RTC) or experimental study 2. Rahimimoghadam, Z., Rahemi, Z., Sadat, Z., & Mirbagher Ajorpaz, N. (2019).Pilates exercises and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease.Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 34, 35–40. 2. This article fall in this level because is has all the qualities. The authors used two groups, experimental and control groups to conduct the trial. They then used a great tool the Quality of Life Short Questionnaire Form to measure the quality of life at the beginning and at the end of the trial.  When the results were compared, there was significant increase in quality of life experimental group than in the other. This proves that RCT are a reliable tool to measure the effectiveness of a trial drug, practice and many more (Sasso, et al., 2018). 3. Quasi-experimental study 3. Harvey, E. M., Freeman, D., Wright, A., Bath, J., Peters, V. K., Meadows, G. Collier, B. R. (2019).Impact of advanced nurse teamwork training on trauma team performance.Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 30,7–15. 3. I picked this article because it has all the qualities. This study was carried out to separate the impact of training RNs from other generalized studies that were focused on trauma teams training performances. The authors used Institutional Review Board–approved prospective, quasi-experimental pre/post intervention. The tools used proved to be effective in increasing RNs confidence an improving teamwork. The authors also suggest that this study can be used in the future as an effective platform for research in other clinical settings. Quasi-experimental studies are used to offer to increase and improve evidence on causal effects such as in epidemiology (Bärnighausen, et al., 2017) . (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland) 4. Descriptive correlational, predictive correlational, and cohort studies 4. Goh, M. L., Ang, E. N. K., Hong-Gu H., Chan, Y., & Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K. (2018).Patient satisfaction is linked to nursing workload in a Singapore hospital.Clinical Nursing Research, 27(6), 692–713. 4. This article fits here because it involved a secondary analysis of data from a primary quantitative correlational study. This done in order to discover whether a change in the value of one is likely to occur when another increases or decreases. The conclusion was that there was a satisfactory result but weak relationship between the nurses’ workload and patient satisfaction (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland). 5. Mixed methods systematic review and qualitative meta-synthesis 5. Dai, Y., & Livesley, J. (2018).A mixed‐method systematic review of the effectiveness and acceptability of preoperative psychological preparation programmes to reduce paediatric preoperative anxiety in elective surgery.Journal of Advanced Nursing, 74(9), 2022–2037. 5. A mixed method study combines both quantitative and qualitative designs. Although more complex, researchers utilize this approach when a single design will not answer their research questions based on their intended purpose. This method is very reliable because the authors do a thorough search of numerous articles to find relevant qualitative and quantitative studies. With the result they give hallmark suggestions of helping parents and children with pediatric preoperative coping skills. 6. Descriptive study and qualitative study 6. Currie, E. R., Christian, B. J., Hinds, P. S., Perna, S. J., Robinson, C., Day, S., & Meneses, K. (2016).Parent perspectives of neonatal intensive care at the end-of-life.Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 31(5), 478–489. 6. A descriptive qualitative design aims to present a comprehensive summary of the phenomena in question in simple terms. This study was used to explore parents’ experience of their infants’ hospitalization at the NICU and detailed face-to-face four years after deaths while the results of this study can suggests areas of improvement in providing end of life care, the results can be used in nursing practice to inform nurses about the difficulties that patents face during these types of visits and remind nurses how their care is impactful to such families . 7. Opinions of expert committees and authorities 7. Cotton, B. P., & Ferszt, G. G. (2018).The role of NPs in medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorder.Nurse Practitioner, 43(5), 8. 7. These are non-research articles that are written by experts who can reference other research studies to support their own opinion about a topic that they may be conversant with (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland). Bärnighausen, T., Oldenburg, C., Tugwell, P., Bommer, C., Ebert, C., Barreto, M., & Djimeu, E. (2017). Quasi-experimental study designs series—paper 7: assessing the assumptions. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 89, 53-66.Broomfield, B.-E. (2016). A nurses’ guide to the hierarchy of research designs and evidence. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 33(3), 38-43.Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (n.d.). The Practice of Nursing Research: Appraisal, synthesis and generation fo evidence(Eighth ed.). St Louis, MO: Elsevier.Sasso, L., Hayter, M., Gianluca, C., Giuseppe, A., Zanini, M., & Bagnasko, A. (2018). Including qualitative research in Randomized Controlled Trials: Opportunities for nursing researchers. Leading Global Nursing Research, 75(4), 705-706.

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