Greek and Roman art

The Greek Architecture is roughly divided into the Archaic Age, Classical age and the Hellenistic age. The period starting from 800-500 BC is known as the Archaic age (Pedly, 2007).. Structured temples with a rectangular shape centre and portico in the front started to appear in the Archaic Age. Excavations dating earlier to this age were found in Heroon at Lefkandi a village in Euboea Island (Catling et al., 1991). This structure was referred to as Heroon meaning the Heroes Grave. The mound is nearly 13.8 meters wide. The excavation here dated back to 950 BC. A cemetery like structure with the remains of a man’s ash and a women’s body were found here in 1960 (Lemos, 2009). The Lefkandi excavations are considered quite significant in the history of Greek Architecture because they provide ample insight into the late bronze and early ion age civilizations like Xeropolis (Lemos, 2009). Excavations carried out in Lefkandi in 2003 bought up several cemeteries in the area similar to the Heroon of Lefkandi. The structures of these cemeteries are the base of later Greek temples built in the Archaic age. There is a wooden veranda similar to the later days Greek temples Portico. The ashes of the man were stored in a bronze amphora with carvings depicting hunting scenes (Catling et al., 1991). … The area surrounding Lefkandi is widely known as Old Eretria. These people who settled here should have live here from the early Bronze Age till the beginning of the Archaic period (Catling et al., 1991). They might have moved away from the area because of the Lelantine War. Another notable cemetery found close to the Heroon of Lefkandi is the cemetery for Toumba1. The building should have been erected around tenth century BC. The burial mound has a main entrance on the eastern side, three rooms and a wide corridor. Rows of wooden columns supported the roof and the building ends with an apsidal on the west (Catling et al, 1991). There is a row of post-holes on the walls facing north and south. There is a huge wooden veranda known as peristrasis. This veranda and the post-holes are found in early Greek temples constructed during the Archaic age too (Lemos, 2009). The people buried here are considered to be quite rich as several costly offerings starting from pots to jewellery were excavated along with the bodies. They should have been offered to the dead as a token of love and gratitude (Lemos, 2009). The Heroon at Lefkandi is considered as a prominent archaeological discovery due to various reasons. The Archaic period is often considered as the beginning of Greek architecture and civilization. But, the Lefkandi excavations proved civilizations and occupations dating back to two hundred years or before prevailed in the area. These excavations were the substantial proof for the culture of Late Helladic IIIC2 period which prevailed around 1075 BCE (Evley, 2006). Many more cemeteries constructed exactly in the style of later day Greek temples like Skoubris and Palia Perivolia was found in the area (Catling et al., 1991). The

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