ENGL 2111: World Literature ISpring 2020Instructor: Dr. Cheng                           Final ExaminationI.  Please briefly explain the meaning of the terms or words or phrases underlined.      (5×6=30 credits) 
1 In Chinese culture, there are three major teachings.  
2 What is the pattern of culture and literature development in Japan? 
3 In “Bring in the Wine” Li Po writes, “this morning blue-black strands of silk, now   turned to snow with evening.” What does “blue-black strands of silk” mean in  Chinese culture? What does “snow” mean?   
4 In “Dialogue in the Mountains” Li Po writes, “Peach blossoms and flowing waters/  go off to mysterious dark. What is “Peach blossoms”? Who created the “the Peach  Blossom Spring”? 
5 In her letter to Chang, Ying-ying writes, “But if, as a man of the world, you curtail  your feelings, sacrificing the lesser to the more important, and look on this  connection as shameful, so that your solemn vow can be dispensed with.” In the  historical context of Tang, how do you understand “the lesser” and   “the more important” ?6 Close to the end of “The Story of Ying-ying,” “All of Chang’s friends who heard of   the affair marveled at it, but Chang had determined on his own course of action.”   Based on your reading, how do you interpret Chang’s “own course of action”? II. Please briefly answer the following questions or analyze parts of literary works (8×5=40 credits).1 Please briefly describe the Man’yōshū(like, what is the position of the Man’yōshū in    Japanese literature? What does the character (yō) 叶/葉 in the title “Man’yōshū”     Mean? What are the two principal forms of poems in the “Man’yōshū”?2 At the end of “Bring in the Wine”, Li Po writes, “And here together we’ll meltthe sorrows/of all eternity!” Based on our introduction of Li’s life story, how doyou understand Li’s sorrow?3 What was the difference between China and Japan with regard to the recruitment      of officials in the 7-9 century A.D.?4 In “The Story of Ying-ying,” after receiving Chang’s poems, Ying-ying sent   him a poem through Hung-niang. Chang understood the message and made it to the   western chamber. However, Ying-ying, appeared in formal dress, with a serious   face, upbraided him. How do you understand Ying-ying’s reproach of Chang when   he made it to the western chamber?  5 Based on our introduction of Ōtomo Tabito’s life, what is the main reason why    Ōtomo Tabito composed the “Thirteen poems in praise of wine” ?   In poem 340 Ōtomo Tabito mentions, “What the ‘Seven Wise Men of ancient    Times/ wanted, it seems was wine.” Why does Tabito mention the ‘Seven Wise   Men’? What literary strategy is it? Seven Wise Men lived in which country    and which historical period? Bonus:6 At the end of the story, Chang accuses Ying-ying as a person of evil influence.     His argument is based on the platitude, “It is a general rule that those women     endowed by Heaven with great beauty invariably either destroy themselves or     destroy someone else.” He also quotes the story of King Hsin/Zhou of Shang     Dynasty and the story of King Yu/You of Zhou Dynasty. How do you think of     this? Use evidence from the text to support your points of view? (6 credits, Bonus)

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