Exam_Decision support system and business intelligence 2

It is thus characterized by subject, integration, time and volatility.Subject-oriented – this is the type of data warehousing in which the data is arranged by the subject details that are relevant to the decision support processes thus enable users determine the how and why of the organization’s performance.Integrated-this is the characteristic of data warehouse in which the data is placed from different sources are placed in a consistent format. This is only possible if the data warehouse is dealing with major data warehousing conflicts like naming discrepancies.Time-variant-this is the characteristic of data warehouse that maintains historical data. Time is a very important aspect of warehousing that defines the status of data in real systems. This character is responsible for detecting trends, long-term relationships and deviations that help in comparisons and forecasting which forms a very important part of decision making.Non-volatile- this is the characteristic of data warehouse that ensures that data entered into the data warehouse is not manipulated by users through updating or changing. It also ensures that changes in the data are recorded as new data and obsolete data are discarded.Q2: Natural Language Processing is the mode of representation that was used by early text mining applications to introduce various structures to the text-based documents so that they could cluster them to the natural groupings or classify them to some predetermined classes. In the earlier text mining like bag-of –words the natural language was considered a cluster of words. Texts like paragraphs, sentence or complete document were often represented as a collection of world. This process disregarded the grammar of the text or the order in which these words appeared. Though this model has become obsolete, some document classification tools still use it. This is still applicable in span filtering where the e-mail message

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