Literature

Elect any two countries and using the academic literature examine the impact of cultural differences on the negotiation process

Hofstede’s Cultural Typology Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory is beneficial in understanding cross-cultural communication processes and the influence of cultural differences. Hofstede found his theory beneficial for developing a model, which ranks one country against the other, on the basis of four dimensions of culture, i.e. power distance, individualism, masculinity/femininity and uncertainty avoidance (Hofstede, 1984). Culture Difference between United Kingdom and Australia Power Distance The society of United Kingdom is supportive of equality within the society and considers each human being or native of the country as equal. These results reflect that United Kingdom’s society has transformed from the typical old times society into a modern one, which believes that individual rights should not be limitedly granted to few fortunate individuals of the society, but fair play should prevail in every aspect of life. Australian society, on the other hand, is found to be a little bit more supportive of equality in the society, as compare to United Kingdom. Australian culture provides each individual with equal opportunities to make their lifestyles better, no matter if the individuals belong to black or white community and they immigrants or civilian of the country (Hofstede, 2012). Individualism By analyzing UK’s society utilizing Hofstede’s typology, it is found that the society is highly supportive of individualism and takes care of each other’s privacy. Individuals are empowered to take decisions about their lives, career and education on their own, and the outcome of their actions is their own responsibility. Moreover, individuals are also supported to live their life in a way, which is considered as a positive contributor towards the overall social structure of the society. When the culture of Australia was analyzed against UK’s culture on the basis of individualism, it was found that Australia’s social structure and culture design are more supportive of individualism as compare to United Kingdom (Hofstede, 2012). Masculinity/ Femininity The society of United Kingdom is highly supportive of masculinity and individuals who are highly successful, ambitious and positive are usually considered as the one who drives the society towards positive attitude. On the other hand, Australian society is also femininity oriented, where individuals’ attitude towards life and their contribution to the society are measured from how successful and ambitious they are about their career and job related performance (Hofstede, 2012). Uncertainty Avoidance In this dimension, the society of UK is found to be more supportive of positive attitude and they always perceive that the future is going to bring for them happiness and fortune. Individuals living within the society are hopeful that their present and future would bring hope. Moreover, it also implies that the social structure of UK allows its individuals to keep their plans for the future and present flexible, as it can be altered according to changing scenarios and incoming new information. This is the reason, that UK’s society is supportive of fair play and equal opportunities for every individual in the society. On the other hand, Australian society is more uncertain about the future and reflects a slightly negative attitude in their daily life practices. They are scared of what might

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