Effect of glycemic index/load of a meal on subsequent food intake

In the final version will provide a summary of the principal findings concerning the effect of glycemic index/load of a meal on subsequent food intake.The theory behind glycemic index is simply to minimise insulin related problems by identifying and avoiding foods that have the greatest effect on blood glucose levelsA number of studies have been done on the effects of glycemic index/load on obesity, satiety and food intake However, there is a lot of controversy as some findings differ. Diabetes Mellitus is one of the main underlying causes of death worldwide. According to Newnham and Ryan (2002) it has been projected that the number of people with diabetes will increase by 78 per cent, from 124 million in 1997 to 221 million in 2010. This figure is significant by any measure, with countries like India, China and USA topping the list. Aim of Study The aim of this study is to determine the effect of glycemic index of a meal on subsequent food intake. The null hypothesis is that the glycemic or index load of a meal has no effect on subsequent food intake. The study is significant since it will provide updated and more beneficial and accurate information on the optimal diet that will help reduce significantly, the deaths associated with diabetes mellitus as well as other health problems like cardiovascular disease and obesity. Literature Review Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load The glycemic index (GI) was developed by researchers from the University of Toronto approximately 30 years ago (Campbell, n.d.). It is used primarily by diabetics, as a tool to control their blood glucose levels. The GI is a ranking of foods that contain carbohydrates based on their potential to raise blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates with GI values of greater than 70 are said to be high GI foods and those less than or equal to 55 are said to be low GI foods. High GI carbohydrates tend to cause a quick rise in blood glucose levels and in most case a quick rise in insulin levels while low GI foods are slowly absorbed and so cause slow increases in blood glucose and insulin levels. According to Foster-Powell et al (2002) reliable tables of glycemic index and glycemic load (GL) can be very useful in improving the quality of research studies that examine the relationship between GI, GL and health. The GI has proven to be very useful in bringing new insights into the relationship between physiologic effects of foods rich in carbohydrate and health. Foster-Powell et al also states that food with a high glycemic load (GI x Dietary carbohydrate content) is independently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Effects of High and Low Glycemic Index on Appetite Leatherwood and Pollet (1988) examined the effects of GI on subsequent food intake (appetite) found that there were lower levels of blood glucose and a slow return of hunger after meals with bean puree which is low in GI starch when compared with meals that included potato which is a high GI starch. Holt et al (1992) also showed that there was an inverse relationship between satiety score and glycemic and insulinemic responses to various breakfast cereals. According to Ludwig (2000) all but one of at least 16 prior studies done showed that after low GI foods were consumed there was increased satiety, a delay in the return of hunger or a reduction in ad libitum food intake. Ludwig et al (qtd. in Ludwig (2000) explored the physiologic events that might relate GI to ones appetite by comparing the effects of three isocaloric test meals with different levels of GI during separate 24 hour admissions. One of the three meals had a low GI, the second a medium GI, and the third a high GI. The low GI meal consisted of vegetable omelette and fruit, the medium GI meal of steel-cut oatmeal which slows digestion rate, and the high GI meal of instant oatmeal. These meals were

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