Physics

Decision Making Assessment (Synthesis)

Running Head: DECISION MAKING CONCEPTS Decision making concepts – U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Decision making is defined as the process of selecting and identifying the alternatives based on the predilection and ideals of the decision maker. Proper decision making implies that there are a set of alternatives that may be selected not only by identifying but also by choosing the best among them that fits with the “goals, objectives, desires and values” (Fulop, n.d., p. 1) of the organization. Decision making process involves agreement between the decision maker and stakeholders regarding definition of the problem, requirements and identification of the alternatives based on the goals and objectives of the organization. The study deals in focusing on the decision making concept with reference to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Frame is defined as “the structural core of the paradigmatic mental model that brings to a problem” (Johnson &amp. Russo, 1994, p. 290). In simple terms decision making frames creates its own ideas and focuses on the environment. By ideas it is meant that the environmental issues should be considered that are affected by the decision (Johnson &amp. Russo, 1994, p. 290). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers considers environmental sustainability as their key principle. The Corp team diligently works to strengthen the security of the nation by developing and preserving the infrastructure of America and offering military facilities (About us, n.d.).
Any type of decision making is backed by reasoning. A bad decision comes from distortion and biases, which creates a series of mental flaws and obstructs the sense of reasoning. So before coming to any decision reasoning should be done properly (The Hidden Traps in Decision Making, n.d.). Behind any decision taken by the organization, the main reason is to “strengthen the security system, energize the economy and reduce the risks from disasters” (Mission &amp. Vision, n.d.). For this reason a group of trained individual is continuously working to provide innovative and sustainable solutions (Mission &amp. Vision, n.d.).
Declarative knowledge in decision making gives importance to the ordering of attributes and relative desirability of various levels within the attributes that are required to implement the strategy. Thus the experience and expertise of a decision maker is bound to be affected by the declarative and procedural memory in following a plan (Goldstain &amp. Weber, 1995, p.116). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers always transform the ways they do their business based on the Campaign Plan. A set of experienced, trained and certified workers, work as per the designed thoughts and actions lead by the Campaign Plan (USACE Campaign Plan Overview, n.d.).
Normative theory of decision making is based on various facets that include “idealizing, rational, super intelligent people” (Bell, Raiffa &amp. Tversky, 1988, p.16) who should think and act differently. The organization has a team of qualified, trained and certified professional who are expertise in dealing with projects that may aim towards different goals in different situations. For instance they are improving the waterways to energize the economy and at the same time they are devising infrastructure that would reduce damage and risk from natural disasters like hurricane.
For decision making the idea of conditional independence is quite significant because of its relationship in confounding and the estimation of causal effect (Kattan, 2009, p.16). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers closely tries to frame the main causes behind a particular situation before designing any action plan.
Interrogative logic accounts for probable answers as they appear in both pragmatic and inductive decision making (Kolak &amp. Symons, 2005, p. 61). The decision makers of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers are also delivering their duties based on both economic and epistemic perspective.
Any type of decision making has four common biases: “availability, representativeness, anchor and adjustment and overconfidence” (Cook, Noyes &amp. Masakowski, 2007, p. 46).Few years back U.S. Army Corps of Engineers was in news since some of their white workers were regularly using racist jokes in presence of black co workers which was affecting their progress in work (Army Corps Of Engineers Strikes Accord In Bias Case, 1997). The various models of decision making are discussed and it is clear that U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is working hard with a set of dedicated employees to bring about progress in America both in economic and environmental terms.
REFERENCES
About Us. (n.d.). US Army Corp of Engineers, retrieved on February 7, 2013 from http://www.usace.army.mil/About.aspx
Bell, D. E., Raiffa, H. &amp. Tversky, A. (1988). Decision Making: Descriptive, Normative, and Prescriptive Interactions. Cambridge University Press
Cook , M. J., Noyes, J. M. &amp. Masakowski, Y. (2007). Decision Making in Complex Environments, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Fulop, J. (n.d.). Introduction to Decision Making Methods, retrieved on February 7, 2013 from https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=t&amp.rct=j&amp.q=&amp.esrc=s&amp.source=web&amp.cd=5&amp.cad=rja&amp.ved=0CEsQFjAE&amp.url=http%3A%2F%2Fciteseerx.ist.psu.edu%2Fviewdoc%2Fdownload%3Fdoi%3D10.1.1.86.6292%26rep%3Drep1%26type%3Dpdf&amp.ei=9eMRUaCNAYPJrQexj4CoDg&amp.usg=AFQjCNHQ3VeHogt7Dhz3zbr0ETd9wUa4Fg&amp.bvm=bv.41934586,d.bmk
Goldstain, W. M. &amp. Weber, E. U. (1995). Decision Making from a Cognitive Perspective: Advances in Research and Theory. Academic Press
Johnson, E. J. &amp. Russo, E. J. (1994). Competitive decision Making: Two and a Half Frames. Marketing Letters, 5(3), pp. 289-302, retrieved on February 7, 2013 from http://forum.johnson.cornell.edu/faculty/russo/Competitive%20Decision%20Making%20-%20Two%20and%20a%20Half%20Frames.pdf
Kattan, M. W. (2009). Encyclopedia of Medical Decision Making, Volume 1. SAGE
Kevin, S. (1997). Army Corps Of Engineers Strikes Accord In Bias Case. The New York Times, retrieved on February 8, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/1997/07/25/us/army-corps-of-engineers-strikes-accord-in-bias-case.html
Kolak, D. &amp. Symons, J. (2005). Quantifiers, Questions and Quantum Physics: Essays on the Philosophy of Jaakko Hintikka. Springer
Mission &amp. Vision. (n.d.). US Army Corps of Engineers, retrieved on February 7, 2013 from http://www.usace.army.mil/About/MissionandVision.aspx
The Hidden Traps in Decision Making. (n.d.). Harvard Business Review, retrieved on February 7, 2013 from http://www.nationalfiretraining.net/uploads/groups/GreatBasin/Assets/Rebecca/The_Hid den_Traps_in_Decision_Maikng.pdf
USACE Campaign Plan Overview. (n.d.), retrieved on February 7, 2013 from http://www.usace.army.mil/About/CampaignPlan.aspx

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