Critique of King’s theory of the goal of attainment

The critique of King’s Goal of Attainment Theory: Background: Imogene King was the first to introduce the Theory of Goal Attainment in the early 1960s. King was born in 1923 in west point. The theory’s name, The Theory of Goal Attainment, is aimed at showing the, interpersonal skills, that people possess in order to achieve certain goals in life. Imogene King studied in the field of nursing, becoming a professor at the University of Florida’s college of nursing in Tampa. King also worked extensively in the nursing field doing research in the nursing division in Washington D.C. She was the director of the Ohio University School of Nursing. This extensive work in the nursing field contributed greatly in the theory because of her experience in the nursing field research (King, 2007).The Theory of Goal Attainment describes the relationship between people working together to attain a certain goal. In this case, a patient and a nurse, communicate when working together, to achieve a goal, the patient’s health. The theory looks at interpersonal systems, personal systems and social systems, how human beings use these aspects in their daily life while trying to attain their goals.Theory Description:The theory uses concepts to show how each system works. The concepts are defined in both theoretical and operational terms describing the systems and their application. The concepts for personal system are. growth and development, body image, space, time, self, and perception. The concepts for interpersonal system are. transaction, role, interaction, communication and stress. The social system concepts are. Authority, power, organization and status and decision making (King, 1991). The theory provides a map to show how the concepts work:systemconceptsPersonal -Growth and development,-Self,-Perception.-Body image,-Space and-timeInterpersonal-Interaction,-Transaction,-Communication,-Role,-Decision making,-Power,-Authority and-statusEvaluation:The theory enlists the explicit and implicit assumptions underlying it: the nursing focus, its goal, the goal of nurses, nursing process, plan, implementing and evaluating nursing care. Nurses and patients communicate, set goals mutually, and then work to attain those goals. In life situation, people interact, perceive and enter into situations and in the process, each participant is changed (King, 2007).The theory also describes the four Metaparadigm concepts of nursing, which are: a human being, health, environment and nursing. The theory reflect clarity of thought process in that a human being is rational, perceive, think, feel, choose, set goals, select means to achieve goals and make decisions. The theory explains the logical congruence of the internal structure of the theory by showing how the systems come together and the attainment of goals.Application:The theory does not give an indication that help predict or control the theory, but it demonstrates the ability to guide nursing actions, which involve diagnosis, or assessing, planning, implementation of actions, and evaluation. The theory, however, does not reveal to what extent it can guide the nursing phenomenon. It finds application in the primary areas of nursing. The theory however does not mention any inherent limitations, and, its application is only confined within a narrow focus. The theory’s easy understanding makes it relevant to practice and can be applied in future (King, 2011).ReferencesKing I. M. (1991). Nursing Theory. Retrieved 9thNov, 2011 from nursing Theory website: .I .M. (Oct 17, 2007). Application of Theory of Goal Attainment. retrieved 9th Nov, 2011, from Nursing Theories Website: I. M. (October 31, 2011). Theory of goal attainment. retrieved 9th Nov, 2011.from Nursing Theory website:

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