Connection Journal about Mutualism

when Due: Connection Journal about Mutualism Introduction Mutualism is a symbiotic relationship that exists between two species. The two species benefit from each other. A good example is the fungi and the plant roots. The fungi obtains food from the plant roots. In return, the plant obtains protection, nutrients and water. There are two types of mutualism that exists: facultative and obligate mutualism (Yamamura, pp. 421-428)
Facultative mutualism is a relationship that exists between two species that depend and benefit from each other by living in close association. However, this two species do not need each other for survival. One species can live without the other but it isbeneficial when both species live together.A good example is the relationship that exists between the cleaner fish and the large fish. The cleaner fish feeds on small organisms and the parasites found on the bodies of larger fish. The larger fish in return is relieved of unwelcome guests which affects their body fitness.
Obligate mutualism, on the other hand, is a relationship that exists between two individuals that depend on each other for survival. Both species must live close to each other so that they can survive. A good example is the bees and the flowers. The bee must obtain nectar and propolis from the flowers so as to make honey and feed the colony. In return, the bee transfers pollen aiding in pollination thus reproduction in the flowers.
Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship that exists between two species where one species (parasite) benefits at the expense of the other (host). A slight difference exist between mutualism and parasitism. Mutualism will only exist as long as benefits acquire by each species outweighs the cost. When the opposite holds,mutualism becomes parasitism. In many cases, were mutualism exists, one species benefits more than the other thus it is similar to parasitism.
The different types of mutualism that exists include: resource- resource relationship where both species obtain a resource from the other. Service – service relationship where each species benefits from a service offered by the other. Service – resource relationship where one species offers a service to the other in exchange of a resource. For mutualism to occur, both species must benefit from each other.
Trillium grandiflorumis dispersed by insects.More seeds are dispersed within a short distance. Neighbor effects are more beneficial in harsh environments. Their presence increases the survival of species in harsh environments. Mutualism will only occur when benefits derivedby one species outweighs the cost to acquire such benefits. Mutualism can easily change to parasitism thus affecting the richness of certain species.
Work cited
Yamamura, Norio et al. “Evolution of mutualism through spatial effects.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 226.4 (2004): 421-428. Print.

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