Accounting

Chapter03

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 3
Attitudes and Job Satisfaction1) Which of the following answer choices is the best definition of attitude?A) Attitudes indicate how one will react to a given event.B) Attitudes are the yardstick by which one measures ones actions.C) Attitudes are the emotional part of an evaluation of a person, object, or event.D) Attitudes are evaluative statements of what one believes about something or someone.E) Attitudes are a measure of how the worth of an object, person or event is evaluated.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Attitudes are defined as evaluative statements, either favorable or unfavorable, about objects, people, or events. Although attitudes can indicate how people will react and behave, this is not the definition encompassing all attitudes. Emotion and evaluation are facets of types of attitudes.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.2) The emotional or feeling component of a person’s attitude is called ________.A) complex understandingB) the cognitive componentC) the affective componentD) a complex attitudeE) the behavior componentAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Affect is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude and is called the affective component. Description of or belief in the way things are is the cognitive component of attitude. The intention to behave in a certain way toward something describes the behavior component of attitude. Complex understanding and a complex attitude are not components of attitude as defined in OB.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.3) Janice is spending the summer working as an intern writing copy for a local firm. Today Janice’s senior editor sent back some of Janice’s work covered in red ink corrections. Up until now, all of Janice’s work had been corrected in green or blue ink. Janice is upset and worried that her senior editor doesn’t like her.Which component of an attitude is not represented in the previous scenario?A) the positive componentB) the cognitive componentC) the affective componentD) the negative componentE) the behavioral componentAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) In the example, Janice does not take action. Therefore, she does not demonstrate the behavioral component of an attitude. Janice believes that her senior editor doesn’t like her. This judgment, or evaluation, demonstrates the cognitive component of an attitude. Janice is upset. She has had an emotional reaction to the red ink on her work, which represents the affective component of an attitude. Although an attitude can be positive or negative, these are not considered components of an attitude as defined in OB.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.4) The belief that “violence is wrong” is an evaluative statement. Such an opinion constitutes the ________ component of an attitude.A) cognitiveB) affectiveC) reflectiveD) behavioralE) reactiveAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The cognitive component of an attitude is a description of, or belief in the way things are, which is exemplified in the statement “violence is wrong”. The affective component of an attitude reveals the emotional reaction, and the behavioral component is how someone behaves toward someone or something. There are no components of attitude called reflective or reactive in OB.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.5) Which of the following is an example of an affective attitude?A) believing that you did a good jobB) the observation that most dogs have four legsC) the opinion that it is never acceptable to stealD) anger at being unfairly accused of a wrongdoingE) the avoidance of a restaurant where one once received bad serviceAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Affective attitudes reveal emotion, such as anger. Belief and opinions are examples of cognitive or evaluative attitudes. Observation and avoidance are behaviors and are facets of behavioral attitudes.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.6) Thad, Jamarcus, and Willy have been working for Davidson International each for three years. While the trio started together as analysts and are all still on the same team, Jamarcus has recently been made a team lead, while Willy and Thad are still in their respective positions, although Willy did receive a small raise after his last performance evaluation. When Thad complained about not getting a raise, he was experiencing which attitude?A) cognitiveB) affectiveC) behavioralD) negativeE) dissonanceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Although his feeling that he was slighted was cognitive, his expression of his feelings is affective.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.7) Attitudes are evaluative statements.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Attitudes in OB are defined as evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.8) There are three components of an attitude: cognition, affect, and behavior.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Typically, researchers have assumed that attitudes have three components: cognition, affect, and behavior.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.9) The intent to act in a certain way is the affective component of an attitude.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The affective component is the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. An intent to act in a certain way is the behavioral component of an attitude.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.1 Contrast the three components of an attitude.10) The theory of cognitive dissonance was proposed by ________.A) MaslowB) FestingerC) HofstedeD) SkinnerE) PavlovAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In the 1960s, Leon Festinger argued that attitudes follow behavior. Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will therefore attempt to reduce it. They will seek a stable state, which is a minimum of dissonance. Maslow, Hofstede, Skinner, and Pavlov all made other contributions to OB.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.11) “Dissonance” means ________.A) reactanceB) constancyC) resistanceD) consistencyE) inconsistencyAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Cognitive dissonance is defined as any incompatibility, or inconsistency, an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Reactance is an emotional reaction to pressure. Constancy and consistency is to continue and not interrupt. Resistance is to avoid.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.12) Leon Festinger argued that ________ follow(s) ________.A) behavior; job satisfactionB) behavior; attitudeC) attitudes; behaviorD) attitudes; job satisfactionE) job satisfaction; behaviorAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) In the late 1960s, a review of the research challenged the assumed effect of attitudes on behavior. One researcher—Leon Festinger—argued that attitudes follow behavior.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.13) Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes results in ________.A) organizational dissonanceB) cognitive dissonanceC) attitudinal clarificationD) values clarificationE) affective reactanceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Cognitive dissonance is defined as any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. Organizational dissonance, attitudinal clarification, values clarification, and affective reactance are not types of attitude or behavior in OB.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.14) Employees who have ________ were found to have improved attitudes once they talked about their experiences with their coworkers.A) simple work tasksB) emotionally-challenging work eventsC) traumatic personal life eventsD) sexual harassment experiencesE) poor performance reviewsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The attitudes of employees who had emotionally challenging work events improved after they talked about their experiences with coworkers. Social sharing helped these workers adjust their attitudes to behavioral expectations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.15) Jo is a courier delivering parcels throughout the metropolitan area. Although she considers herself law abiding, she often breaks the speed limit while making her deliveries. Which of the following statements does notreflect a likely response to the conflict between her attitude and her behavior?A) “It’s not a problem that I speed a little bit; it’s not much over the limit, and everyone else speeds some.”B) “The speed limits are just too low around here; anyone driving at a reasonable speed will break them.”C) “This speeding is irresponsible. From now on I am observing the speed limits.”D) “I’ve got to drive fast sometimes, otherwise I will not make all my deliveries and I’ll lose clients.”E) “It’s wrong to break even minor laws, but I’ll probably keep speeding anyway.”Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Jo seeing speeding as wrong and not providing a reason to continue does not logically fit into a method of reducing cognitive dissonance. Jo is able to justify her speeding just a little bit and still feel comfortable. Jo justifies her speeding because the limits are too low. Jo’s cognitive dissonance is too strong, so she quits speeding. Jo reduces the dissonance by rationalizing her need to speed.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.16) Sheila works for a manufacturer of Styrofoam trays for school lunches. Last year her son came home from school and told her that the trays she makes go straight to the landfill where they sit for hundreds of years without ever biodegrading. Although this information bothers Sheila, she does not look for another job because she enjoys her very high salary. Which dissonance moderating factor is illustrated by this example?A) Dissonance is reduced because of the sense of control by the individual.B) Dissonance is reduced because of the importance to the individual.C) There is no dissonance moderating factor in the example.D) Dissonance is increased because of the sense of control by the individual.E) High dissonance is tolerated because of a high reward.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Sheila tolerates her dislike for this aspect of her job because she is given a high reward in the form of a high salary. Sheila does not feel like she can control what the company does with the trays. Control doesn’t increase or reduce the dissonance. Although the information bothers Sheila and she considers it important, she is not able to reduce the dissonance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.17) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that workers’ rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. Mrs. Jonas is likely experiencing ________.A) cognitive dissonanceB) unresolved angerC) ethical evasionD) uncertainty avoidanceE) social pressureAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Because there is a contradiction in what Mrs. Jonas is feeling and the situation in which she finds herself, she is experiencing cognitive dissonance, any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. The example doesn’t say that Mrs. Jonas is experiencing anger or social pressure. Not knowing what Mrs. Jonas will do, we cannot say whether she will avoid the ethical decisions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.18) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that workers’ rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. Mrs. Jonas can be expected to relieve the discomfort she is experiencing by doing the following except________.A) deciding this issue is unimportantB) rationalizing that it is not her problem since she is not the contractorC) attempting to stop the contractor using undocumented workersD) coming to accept that using undocumented workers does not harm workers’ rightsE) terminating the contract as it is against her attitudeAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Research has generally concluded that people do seek consistency among their attitudes and between their attitudes and their behavior. They either alter the attitudes or the behavior, or they develop a rationalization for the discrepancy. Each of these answers is an example of how Mrs. Jonas either alters her attitude or behavior.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.19) Mrs. Jonas believes strongly that it is important that workers’ rights be respected, and that one of the more important ways of doing this is to ensure that all workers be properly documented. She is supervising a contracting company that is building a new warehouse for her company. While doing this she discovers that many of the workers employed by the contractor are undocumented aliens working for well below minimum wage. In this situation Mrs. Jonas has a(n) ________ that is in conflict with a(n) ________.A) behavior; behaviorB) attitude; attitudeC) social need; social interestD) social need; social needE) attitude; behaviorAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The belief in workers’ rights represents Mrs. Jonas’ attitude, which comes into direct conflict with her behavior of contracting illegal workers. Her behavior is not conflicting with another behavior, nor are two attitudes conflicting represented in this example. Social need and interest are not a part of the attitude equation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.20) Festinger proposed that the desire to reduce dissonance is determined by three moderating factors including the ________.A) values of the elements creating the dissonanceB) degree of influence the individual believes he or she has over the elementsC) degree of positive affect the person has toward the behaviorD) fact that values and attitudes will vary over the short termE) awareness that dissonance existsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Festinger proposed that the desire to reduce dissonance depends on moderating factors, including the importance of the elements creating it, the degree of influence we believe we have over it, and the rewards of dissonance. Festinger does not mention the values of the elements or the degree of positive affect toward the behavior. Values and attitudes will vary, but don’t reduce dissonance. Awareness of dissonance doesn’t mean that dissonance will be reduced.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.21) Cameron loves her job as a data programmer, but her coworker Blake, is very challenging. Blake often loses his temper over aspects of shared projects that neither of them can control. When discussing projects in Cameron’s work station, Blake plays with her office supplies, rearranges her desk, and leaves snack and food crumbs. Worst of all, Blake always takes the portion of a project that is the easiest, leaving Cameron to work harder and longer hours. Which of the following is not an effective method for handling Cameron’s problems with Blake?A) Cameron should invite Blake to lunch and directly confront him with her feelings.B) Cameron should invite Blake to coffee to clarify if there are any misunderstandings.C) Cameron should simply ignore Blake and his behavior.D) Cameron should make a point of going to Blake’s work station and leaving a mess.E) Cameron should ask a manager to help divide the work load for the next project.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Although tempting, retaliation will only escalate the situation. Cameron should not engage in Blake’s petty behavior by messing up his work station. A direct and conciliatory approach is the first step to try, as well as seeing the problem from the other person’s point of view. If unable to solve the problem, the next best thing to do is to ignore it. Involving management is a last resort, but can be done if there is a positive solution in mind, such as evenly dividing the work.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.22) Your friend Leslyn has been driving a Mustang for the past few years and is very vocal about how much she likes her car. Unfortunately, she was recently in an accident and has now purchased a brand new Challenger. Now she talks about how much she likes the Challenger and has started to criticize Mustangs! Which statement would best describe what you should say to Leslyn the next time she talks about cars?A) Leslyn, I liked your Mustang but your Challenger is great too!B) Leslyn, I am sorry about your car. Why did you not get another Mustang?C) Leslyn, I am sorry about your car Mustang. It was a great car but your Challenger is great too!D) Leslyn, I am sorry about your Mustang but do you need to be so negative toward it now?E) Leslyn, your negativity is driving us all nuts!Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Leslyn is experiencing cognitive dissonance and needs help resolving her feelings about the old car in relation to the new car. By complimenting both cars, you are aiding her in resolving her feelings which allows her to embrace both vehicles.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.23) Which of the following is not a moderating variable of the attitude-behavior relationship?A) direct experienceB) correspondence to behaviorC) powerD) accessibilityE) importanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The most powerful moderators of the attitudes relationship are the importance of the attitude, its correspondence to behavior, its accessibility, the presence of social pressures, and whether a person has direct experience with the attitude.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.24) Thad, Jamarcus, and Willy have been working for Davidson International each for three years. While the trio started together as analysts and are all still on the same team, Jamarcus has recently been made a team lead while Willy and Thad are still in their respective positions although Willy did receive a small raise after his last performance evaluation. Willy was happy to receive the raise but felt guilty that Thad did not also get a raise. Which best describes Willy’s feelings?A) cognitive dissonanceB) affective behaviorC) job satisfactionD) workplace devianceE) organizational citizenshipAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) While he is happy for what he has received, Willy feels badly for his teammate. He has two different feelings toward the same situation which is causing his dissonance.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.25) According to Festinger, people seek consistency among their attitudes and their behaviors.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable and that individuals will, therefore, attempt to reduce it. They will seek a stable state, which is a minimum of dissonance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.26) Rewards can offset dissonance.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  High rewards accompanying high dissonance tend to reduce the tension inherent in the dissonance.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.27) The more specific the attitude and the more specific the behavior, the stronger the link between the two.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Specific attitudes tend to predict specific behaviors, whereas general attitudes tend to best predict general behaviors.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.28) Describe how attitude can shape behavior.Answer:  Specific attitudes tend to predict specific behaviors, whereas general attitudes tend to best predict general behaviors. Attitudes that our memories can easily access are more likely to predict our behavior. Attitudes you frequently express are attitudes you are more likely to remember. So the more you talk about your attitude on a subject, the more likely you are to remember it, and the more likely it is to shape your behavior.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.29) Discuss cognitive dissonance theory. How do individuals seek consistency among their attitudes, and between their attitudes and their behavior?Answer:  Cognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility an individual might perceive between two or more attitudes, or between behavior and attitudes. Festinger argued that any form of inconsistency is uncomfortable, and that individuals will attempt to reduce the dissonance and, hence, the discomfort. They will seek a stable state, in which there is a minimum of dissonance.Research has generally concluded that people seek consistency among their attitudes, and between their attitudes and their behavior. They do this by altering either the attitudes or the behavior, or by developing a rationalization for the discrepancy. They can deny that any clear causation between the attitude and the behavior has been established. They can brainwash themselves by continually articulating the benefits of the attitude or the behavior. They can acknowledge the negative consequences of the attitude or behavior, but rationalize it. They can accept the research evidence and begin actively working to better the conditions. Or they can quit the attitude or the behavior because the dissonance is too great.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.30) James is a scientist for a local manufacturer that employs a large percentage of the small town where he lives. Until recently James has loved his job. However, it has been discovered that the company is releasing small amounts of toxins into the local river. James is extremely bothered by this information. Based on what you know about James, describe the cognitive dissonance that he is experiencing, and two ways that James might alter his behavior or attitude to reduce the dissonance.Answer:  As a scientist James is horrified by his company’s pollution. The dissonance he feels is the contradiction between a sense of loyalty and love for his job, versus an anger at the company’s infractions. To reduce the dissonance James could rationalize that all companies pollute a little bit, and that it is worth the sacrifice because his company provides jobs for the whole community. James could accept certain excuses and evidence that the company provides, such as that the pollution is tiny and moves down-river, not really affecting his community. James can ignore the dissonance because he values his job as a scientist in a community with few jobs.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.2 Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.31) What refers to a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics?A) job satisfactionB) job involvementC) job stabilityD) organizational commitmentE) social investmentAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) When people speak of employee attitudes, they usually mean job satisfaction, which describes a positive feeling about a job, resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive feelings about his or her job, while a person with a low level holds negative feelings.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.32) Employees’ beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy is termed as ________.A) psychological empowermentB) organizational commitmentC) perceived organizational supportD) employee engagementE) job satisfactionAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Employees’ beliefs in the degree to which they influence their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy is termed as psychological empowerment.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.33) The degree to which a person identifies with his or her job, actively participates in it, and considers his or her performance as being important to self-worth is ________.A) job satisfactionB) job involvementC) job stabilityD) organizational commitmentE) social embeddednessAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Job involvement measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.34) In regards to job engagement, having a good manager they enjoy working for and ________ were found to be the top causations.A) feeling appreciated by one’s supervisorB) being paid what they feel they are worthC) getting timely promotionsD) socializing with one’s coworkersE) having flexible work schedulesAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Feeling appreciated by one’s supervisor is also a top indicator; however, there are no clear indicators of job engagement that can be consistently found.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.35) In her work in the publishing industry, Vera seeks out new authors whom she considers promising. In the past two years she has found a number of new writers whose work she thought was exceptional, and immersed herself in the task of helping them shape their manuscripts for submission to her managers for publishing. Although she was extremely proud of the results, none of the authors she worked with were chosen for publication. Vera believes that the decision not to publish these authors was based on personal rivalries within management, rather than the quality of her writers’ work. She is extremely frustrated, dreads coming into work each morning, and is seriously thinking of resigning. How can Vera’s job attitudes best be described?A) low job satisfaction and low job involvementB) low job satisfaction and high job involvementC) high job satisfaction and low job involvementD) high job satisfaction and high job involvementE) low organizational commitmentAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Vera is feeling negative toward her job resulting in low job satisfaction, even though she believes that she has invested tremendously in the organization and is important to it, showing a high job involvement. Vera’s negative feelings reveal a low job satisfaction rating. Vera showed dedication to her organization as she prepared her writers.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.36) Which of the following is not considered a major job attitude by OB researchers?A) job satisfactionB) positive personalityC) organizational commitmentD) employee engagementE) job involvementAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) A positive personality isn’t considered a major job attitude in OB. A positive feeling about one’s job as indicated in job satisfaction is considered a major job attitude. Organizational commitment, the degree to which a person identifies with the organization, and job involvement, the degree to which a person identifies with the job and participates in it, are both considered major job attitudes, as is employee engagement, a person’s involvement with the job.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.37) Lance recently earned his doctorate from a historic University, famous for its top academics and sports programs. While in graduate school, he was very active in student life and intramurals and maintained an active social life while earning high marks for his teaching and research. Upon graduation, he was elected “senator at large” for the alumni association and still maintains strong relationships with his faculty and mentors. After graduation, Lance was hired as an assistant professor at a metropolitan University. This University is only 30 years old, has no sports program and very little collegiality among the faculty and staff. Although his teaching evaluations are high, he gets very little positive input from his supervisors and feels that he is constantly being abused and overworked by the administration, regardless of his personal life. With which two job attitudes is Lance most likely having issues?A) Cognitive Dissonance and Job SatisfactionB) Job Satisfaction and Employee EngagementC) Employee Engagement and Perceived Organizational SupportD) Perceived Organizational Support and Cognitive DissonanceE) Job Satisfaction and Perceived Organizational SupportAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) First, Lance is experiencing Perceived Organizational Support issues because he feels that regardless of what his personal needs are that his current University does not support him or respect what he does. Second, Lance is experiencing Cognitive Dissonance because he is comparing his current experience to the more positive experience he had while in graduate school, even though the situations are not particularly similar.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.38) Organizational commitment is defined as ________.A) the degree to which an employee identifies with the organization they work for and its goalsB) an employee’s belief that the organization they work for will go to considerable lengths to ensure that its employees are treated fairlyC) the degree to which an employee’s sense of fulfillment and self-worth is related to their jobD) the amount of effort an employee will make in order to keep or advance their position in an organizationE) the degree to which an employee believes their work impacts their organizationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization is organizational commitment. Perceived organizational support (POS) is an employee’s belief that the organization they work for will go to considerable lengths to ensure that its employees are treated fairly. Job involvement is the degree to which an employee’s sense of fulfillment and self-worth is related to their job. Psychological empowerment is the degree to which an employee believes their work impacts their organization.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.39) Of the following attitudes, the best predictor of turnover is ________.A) payB) supervisionC) organizational commitmentD) cognitive dissonanceE) affective dissonanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Research evidence demonstrates negative relationships between organizational commitment and both absenteeism and turnover. Pay, supervision, cognitive dissonance, and affective dissonance are not attitudes.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.40) ________ is the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.A) Psychological empowermentB) Employee engagementC) Perceived organizational supportD) Organizational commitmentE) Job involvementAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Perceived organizational support (POS) is the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. Research shows that people perceive their organization as supportive when rewards are deemed fair, when employees have a voice in decisions, and when they see their supervisors as supportive.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.41) Guillermo’s wife was recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Guillermo had to take a considerable amount of time off work to care for their children, and he was late in completing his portion of a large project. Guillermo never feared that his job was in jeopardy because of his absences or his delay in completion of work. Name the major job attitude relative to the above stated example.A) psychological empowermentB) perceived organizational supportC) organizational commitmentD) employee engagementE) job involvementAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Guillermo believed that his organization would be supportive through his times of stress. This major job attitude is called perceived organizational support. The belief and sense that a person has an effect in the work environment is psychological empowerment. Organizational commitment, the degree to which a person identifies with the organization, and job involvement, the degree to which a person identifies with the job and participates in it, are both considered major job attitudes, as is employee engagement, a person’s involvement with the job, but these were not what calmed Guillermo’s fears.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.42) Siddarth has a positive attitude toward his organization. He feels the management treats all employees fairly in matters concerning rewards, takes into account employees’ opinions, and overall, is highly supportive. Siddarth’s attitude toward his employing organization is indicative of ________.A) psychological empowermentB) employee engagementC) perceived organizational supportD) core self evaluationsE) organizational citizenshipAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Perceived organizational support (POS) is the degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. Research shows that people perceive their organization as supportive when rewards are deemed fair, when employees have a voice in decisions, and when they see their supervisors as supportive.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.43) In the context of employee engagement, it is observed that the highly engaged employees feel a deep connection to their company. Disengaged employees ________.A) feel disconnected, portraying deviant behavior at the workplaceB) put in efforts to be as good as engaged employeesC) continue working without affecting the turnoverD) put time but no attention into their workE) engage in productive activities to prove their worthAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work and feel a deep connection to their company; disengaged employees have essentially checked out—putting time but not energy or attention into their work.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.44) An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he/she performs is known as ________.A) employee engagementB) job involvementC) loyaltyD) job satisfactionE) psychological empowermentAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) A new concept is employee engagement, an individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the work he/she does. Highly engaged employees have a passion for their work and feel a deep connection to their company; disengaged employees have essentially checked out—putting time but not energy or attention into their work.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.45) Research shows that someone with a ________ core self-evaluation will also have a ________ job satisfaction level.A) high; highB) high; lowC) low; highD) low; lowE) There is no connection between these two factors.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Individuals who have positive core self-evaluation also tend to show positive job satisfaction levels.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.46) What kind of relationship exists between organizational commitment and job productivity?A) an inverse relationshipB) an independent relationshipC) a weak relationshipD) a positive relationshipE) a negative relationshipAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) A positive relationship appears to exist between organizational commitment and job productivity, but it is a modest one.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.47) In high power-distance countries such as China, employee perceived organizational support perceptions are not as deeply based on employer demonstrations of fairness, support, and encouragement. The difference is ________.A) the rate of financial rewardsB) the amount vacation days awardedC) the level of expectations by employeesD) the willingness to work overtime by employeesE) the willingness of employers to take part in employees personal livesAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) In high-power distance countries such as China, employees accept that their power is distributed unequally and therefore they have little to no expectations of things such as fairness, support, and encouragement.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.48) Thad, Jamarcus, and Willy have been working for Davidson International each for three years. While the trio started together as analysts and are all still on the same team, Jamarcus has recently been made a team lead while Willy and Thad are still in their respective positions although Willy did receive a small raise after his last performance evaluation. Of the five major job attitudes, Jamarcus probably has the highest level of ________, while Willy probably has the highest level of ________.A) job satisfaction; perceived organizational supportB) job satisfaction; organizational commitmentC) organizational commitment; job involvementD) organizational commitment; job satisfactionE) job involvement; job satisfactionAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) While both are probably experiencing levels of all job attitudes, it is likely that Jamarcus has the highest level job satisfaction because he apparently is doing so well in his job that he has been promoted. Willy probably has the highest levels of organizational commitment because, even though he has not been promoted, his efforts have been rewarded.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.49) Job involvement refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Job involvement is the degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.50) Organizational commitment is a more global response to the organization than is job satisfaction.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  In organizational commitment, an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to remain a member.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.51) Most of the research in OB has been concerned with three attitudes: job satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. Explain the difference between these attitudes.Answer:  Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude toward his or her job. A person with a high level of job satisfaction holds positive attitudes toward the job, while a person who is dissatisfied with his or her job holds negative attitudes about the job. Job involvement measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his or her job and considers his or her perceived performance level important to self-worth. Employees with a high level of job involvement strongly identify with and really care about the kind of work they do. Organizational commitment is defined as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. So high organizational commitment means identifying with one’s employing organization.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  SynthesisLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.52) Explain the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance.Answer:  Happy workers are more likely to be productive workers. A review of 300 studies suggested that the correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is pretty strong. As we move from the individual to the organizational level, we also find support for the satisfaction-performance relationship. When we gather satisfaction and productivity data for the organization as a whole, we find organizations with more satisfied employees tend to be more effective than organizations with fewer.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.3 Compare the major job attitudes.53) How can the gaps between what managers think employees feel and what employees really feel be reduced?A) conducting regular surveysB) enforcing administrative policiesC) improving workplace conditionsD) providing incentivesE) training employeesAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Regular surveys can reduce gaps between what managers think employees feel and what they really feel. This can impact the bottom line in small franchise sites as well as in large companies.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.54) As the manager of a high volume bank, you are faced daily with customers who are in a hurry and need decidedly speedy service from the window tellers. Which of the following would most likely cause your employees to offer the customers the service they want while also keeping your employees satisfied with their roles?A) pay them moreB) seek input from the tellers on how to improve their jobC) offer them flex timeD) bring donuts for the break roomE) let the tellers manage themselvesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Research shows that simply asking the employees their opinions can effectively increase their job satisfaction.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.55) There is a strong link between employee ________ and ________.A) attitudes; skill setB) attitudes; personalityC) personality; abilityD) ability, attitudesE) ability, skill setAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) An employee’s natural personality naturally affects the attitude that they bring into their position. For instance, an employee with a naturally positive personality will naturally have a more positive attitude toward their position.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.56) Which major job-satisfaction facet is most strongly correlated with high levels of overall job satisfaction?A) work flexibilityB) payC) social context of the workplaceD) supervisionE) transparencyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) There is a strong correspondence between how well people enjoy the social context of their workplace and how satisfied they are overall. Interdependence, feedback, social support, and interaction with coworkers outside the workplace are strongly related to job satisfaction even after accounting for characteristics of the work itself.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.57) Compared to people who have a negative core self-evaluation, people who have a positive core self-evaluation ________.A) are less satisfied with their jobsB) see their work as less challengingC) see their work as less fulfillingD) are less likely to gravitate toward challenging jobsE) are less likely to give up when confronting difficultiesAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Those with negative core self-evaluations are more likely to give up when confronting difficulties. Research has shown that people who have positive core self-evaluation, who believe in their inner worth and basic competence, are more satisfied with their jobs than those with negative core self-evaluations. Not only do they see their work as more fulfilling and challenging, they are more likely to gravitate toward challenging jobs in the first place.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.58) Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism?A) There is a consistent positive relationship between the two.B) There is a consistent negative relationship between the two.C) There is a curvilinear relationship between the two.D) When fairness is controlled for, there is a direct relationship between the two.E) No relationship can be established between the two.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Although moderate to weak, there is a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism. The fairness control does not affect the relationship. Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.59) In general, people are satisfied with their jobs.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  In general, 49-69 percent of employees worldwide express they are satisfied with their jobs.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.60) Summing up responses to a number of job factors achieves a more accurate evaluation of job satisfaction than does a single global rating.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The summation of job facets helps managers zero in on problems and deal with them faster and more accurately.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.61) Discuss why employees who are committed will be less likely to engage in work withdrawal even if they are dissatisfied.Answer:  In organizational commitment, an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to remain a member. Theoretical models propose that employees who are committed will be less likely to engage in work withdrawal even if they are dissatisfied, because they have a sense of organizational loyalty or attachment. On the other hand, employees who are not committed, who feel less loyal to the organization, will tend to show lower levels of attendance at work across the board. Research confirms this theoretical proposition. It does appear that even if employees are not currently happy with their work, they are willing to make sacrifices for the organization if they are committed enough.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.4 Identify the two approaches for measuring job satisfaction.62) Once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living, the relationship between pay and job satisfaction ________.A) becomes strongerB) turns positiveC) becomes negligibleD) becomes negativeE) weakens, but only slightlyAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) For people who are poor or who live in poor countries, pay does correlate with job satisfaction and overall happiness. But once an individual reaches a level of comfortable living (in the United States, that occurs at about $40,000 a year, depending on the region and family size), the relationship between pay and job satisfaction virtually disappears. People who earn $80,000 are, on average, no happier with their jobs than those who earn closer to $40,000.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.63) Charles makes $24,000 a year. Ana makes $40,000 a year. Ellis makes $75,000 a year. Adam makes $75,000 a year. Shonali makes $30,000 a year. Which of the following is not a true statement about the usual correlation between pay and job satisfaction?A) Charles is less likely to be satisfied with his job than Adam.B) Ana is as likely to be as satisfied with her job as Ellis.C) Ellis and Adam are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs than Shonali.D) Charles is less likely to be satisfied with his job than Shonali.E) Shonali is as likely to be satisfied with her job as Charles.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Research shows that once a person earns a comfortable living at $40,000 in the United States the correlation between pay and job satisfaction disappears, making Ana, Ellis, and Adam all likely to be equally satisfied with their jobs. For those earning under $40,000 a year, pay is related to job satisfaction, making Charles likely to be less satisfied than Adam. Since Charles and Shonali both earn under $40,000 they are likely to be equally dissatisfied.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.64) Ramiro has been a forklift driver for the local grocery store for six years. He earns $32,000 a year. He works with a nice crew. He plays softball with his coworkers on the weekends. They also volunteer together at the local food bank during the holidays, and socialize with their families at summer picnics. Ramiro is highly satisfied with his job. Which of the following is the most probable cause of Ramiro’s high job satisfaction?A) payB) promotionC) high stressD) social contextE) work itselfAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) There is a strong correspondence between how well people enjoy the social context of their workplace and how satisfied they are overall. Ramiro is very active with his coworkers, which leads to his job satisfaction. Ramiro’s pay is under $40,000 which would, in general, indicate a less comfortable lifestyle and lower level of satisfaction. Ramiro has been doing the same thing for six years, indicating little promotion or stress. The work itself is repetitive and would not usually indicate a high level of satisfaction.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.65) Which of the following is generally considered the best predictor of job satisfaction?A) payB) social interactionsC) supervisionD) the work itselfE) task interdependenceAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The work itself is the most important predictor of job satisfaction because you have to like what you do.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.66) Individuals with high levels of both ________ and ________ are most likely to have high levels of job satisfaction.A) core self-evaluations; career commitmentB) core self-evaluations; mentoring relationshipsC) mentoring relationships; social interactionsD) social interactions; core self-evaluationsE) mentoring relationships; career commitmentAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) People who have positive core self-evaluations are more satisfied with their jobs than people with negative CSEs. Additionally, in the context of commitment to one’s career, CSE influences job satisfaction.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.67) Which generational group has the highest correlation between corporate social responsibility and job satisfaction?A) Generation XB) Baby BoomersC) MillennialD) Generation AlphaE) G.I. GenerationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The Millennial generation has a higher awareness of people, planet, and revenue, which are all elements of CSR.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.68) Which of the following does not apply to corporate social responsibility?A) Not all projects are equally meaningful for every person’s job satisfactionB) Participation for all employees is sometimes expectedC) Some organizations require employees to con-tribute in a prescribed mannerD) Pressuring people to go along with CSR will help them think outside the boxE) CSR measures can seem disconnected from the employee’s actual workAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Pressuring people to go along with CSR can actually cause them to retreat from the organization and have lower levels of job satisfaction.Diff: 3AACSB:  Ethical understanding and reasoningQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.69) Think about the best job you have ever had. What elements of that job made it particularly satisfying to you (be sure to use OB terminology)?Answer:  Answers to this question will vary greatly but should include reference to some elements of training, variety, independence, and control that satisfy most employees: interdependence, feedback, social support, interaction with coworkers outside the workplace, and/or the work itself. Most will probably also reference interactions with the manager.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.70) When a company exhibits corporate social responsibility, its employees are more likely to exhibit levels of job satisfaction. Why is this the case?Answer:  When an employee’s personal values match those of the company, job satisfaction is more likely to occur.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.5 Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.71) Which of the following is not an example of organizational citizenship behavior?A) telling your friends about the company’s great work environmentB) contributing to a fund for a coworker to help with medical billsC) discouraging a friend from applying for a job at the companyD) working over the weekend to make sure a project gets doneE) volunteering to help a colleague meet a deadlineAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) OCB, or organizational citizenship behavior, refers to positive behaviors toward the company. Discouraging a friend to apply implies a dissatisfaction and negative attitude. Talking positively about the organization, helping others, and going beyond the normal expectations of the job are all examples of OCB.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.6 Identify three outcomes of job satisfaction.72) Of the “Big Five” personality traits, which two are most associated with job satisfaction?A) neuroticism and agreeablenessB) agreeableness and conscientiousnessC) conscientiousness and openness to experiencesD) openness to experiences and extrovertedE) extroverted and neuroticismAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness are more linked with job satisfaction and as well as organizational citizenship behaviors.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.6 Identify three outcomes of job satisfaction.73) Who are most likely to demonstrate organizational citizenship behaviors?A) the highest paid employeesB) the lowest paid employeesC) those who receive positive feedback on their citizenship behaviorsD) those whose citizenship behaviors go unnoticedE) the supervisorAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Receiving positive feedback on citizenship behaviors from peers motivates others to continue said behaviors.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.6 Identify three outcomes of job satisfaction.74) The evidence indicates that satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.6 Identify three outcomes of job satisfaction.75) Work satisfaction and life satisfaction do not influence each other.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Overall happiness is a mixture of life satisfaction and work satisfaction and the two can influence each other.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.6 Identify three outcomes of job satisfaction.76) Which of the following employees does not exhibit deviant behavior in the workplace?A) Samuel quits his job because his manager never appreciates his efforts.B) Joanna, an HR executive, uses work time to surf articles on the latest fashion trends.C) Wilson takes work supplies like pens and paper clips home for personal use.D) Lily does not show up for work for more than 3 days a week.E) Cara wraps up her work early to attend her daughter’s ballet recital.Answer:  EExplanation:  E) Job dissatisfaction and antagonistic relationships with coworkers predict a variety of behaviors organizations find undesirable, including unionization attempts, substance abuse, stealing at work, undue socializing, and tardiness. These behaviors are indicators of deviant behavior in the workplace (or counterproductive behavior or employee withdrawal).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.77) The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework aids in understanding the consequences of ________.A) payB) low motivationC) dissatisfactionD) lack of loyaltyE) low levels of employee engagementAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) One theoretical model—the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework—is helpful in understanding the consequences of dissatisfaction.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.78) The performance variables productivity, absenteeism, and turnover are generally considered a part of the ________ behaviors in the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework.A) voice and neglectB) neglect and loyaltyC) exit and voiceD) loyalty and exitE) exit and neglectAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) In the exit-voice-loyalty-neglect framework, the exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Exit and neglect behaviors encompass our performance variables–productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.79) Sharon is unhappy with her job as a salesperson at a retail store for many reasons. Yesterday a customer asked her where the shampoo was located. Sharon listlessly replied, “I don’t know.” She then turned her back on the customer and continued stocking the shelf. This is an example of how job satisfaction can affect ________.A) employee OCBB) customer satisfactionC) absenteeismD) turnoverE) workplace devianceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Sharon’s rude behavior toward the customer will directly affect customer satisfaction. Organizational citizenship behavior is not reflected in this example. Sharon is at work and the example doesn’t discuss looking for a new job. Sharon is doing her job, although badly, and is not engaging in deviant activities. Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.80) Employees at Acme Express are dissatisfied with the working conditions, salary, and the general attitude of the management. Mark, Susan, and Toni are good friends who work at Acme, yet each seems to be reacting differently to the problems at work. Toni has decided that she’ll just get a new job and get away from the problem. Toni is dealing with her dissatisfaction through ________.A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) neglectE) acceptanceAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Acceptance is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.81) Employees at Acme Express are dissatisfied with the working conditions, salary, and the general attitude of the management. Mark, Susan, and Toni are good friends who work at Acme, yet each seems to be reacting differently to the problems at work. Susan has composed a list of concerns along with her suggestions for improving conditions. Susan is dealing with her dissatisfaction through ________.A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) neglectE) acceptanceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Acceptance is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.82) Employees at Acme Express are dissatisfied with the working conditions, salary, and the general attitude of the management. Mark, Susan, and Toni are good friends who work at Acme, yet each seems to be reacting differently to the problems at work. Mark believes that his manager is a good person and will work things out if Mark just gives him time to do so. Mark is dealing with his dissatisfaction through ________.A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) neglectE) acceptanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Acceptance is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.83) Employees at Acme Express are dissatisfied with the working conditions, salary, and the general attitude of the management. Mark, Susan, and Toni are good friends who work at Acme, yet each seems to be reacting differently to the problems at work. Maria is dissatisfied with the way that her manager treats her. She has quit her job and found a new position with another firm. She has expressed her dissatisfaction through ________.A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) neglectE) citizenshipAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Citizenship is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.84) A satisfied workforce does not guarantee successful organizational performance. In order to improve organizational effectiveness, managers ________.A) must formulate strategies to attack and eliminate deviant behaviorsB) must keep track of absenteeism and turnover among the employeesC) must make jobs easier and targets achievableD) must offer periodic salary incrementsE) must try to improve employee attitudesAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Creating a satisfied work force is hardly a guarantee of successful organizational performance, but evidence strongly suggests that whatever managers can do to improve employee attitudes will likely result in heightened organizational effectiveness.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.85) Rashid is dissatisfied at work. He feels he is paid too little and asked to do too much. To compensate for his perceived unjust pay, he regularly takes work supplies home for personal use, such as computer ink cartridges, staplers, and reams of paper. Rashid’s behavior is an example of ________.A) employee OCBB) customer satisfactionC) absenteeismD) turnoverE) workplace devianceAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Rashid’s behavior is a manifestation of workplace deviance, in which workers who don’t like their jobs “get even” somehow. Organizational citizenship behavior is not reflected in this example. There is no mention of Rashid’s customers in the example. Rashid goes to work and the example does not mention him looking for a new job. Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.86) Steve is unhappy with his job. He takes every possible vacation and sick day and sometimes shows up late for work. He is expressing his dissatisfaction through ________.A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) social voiceE) neglectAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. Social voice is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.87) Which response is demonstrated by Joe when he speaks up to support his company’s actions even when the local newspaper is criticizing them?A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) neglectE) performanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Performance is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.88) Munwar is dissatisfied with his job and deals with it by regularly discussing his problems with his manager. Which type of response is Joe using in this situation?A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) neglectE) performanceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Performance is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.89) Attending union meetings as a way of coping with job dissatisfaction would be what type of response?A) exitB) voiceC) loyaltyD) neglectE) reificationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The voice response includes actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and undertaking some forms of union activity. The exit response directs behavior toward leaving the organization, including looking for a new position as well as resigning. The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve. The neglect response passively allows conditions to worsen and includes chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate. Reification is not a reaction to dissatisfaction on the job.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.90) To get his company through some hard economic times, Ben’s hours have just been reduced from 40 a week to 33. Ben is upset about the reduction in time and pay, but he shows up at work every morning and is willing to patiently wait until economic times improve, and he can go back to working full time. Which of the following best describes Ben’s response to his dissatisfaction?A) active, constructive, voiceB) passive, destructive, neglectC) passive, constructive, loyalD) active, destructive, exitE) active, constructive, loyalAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Ben demonstrates loyalty to the company and is passively waiting for things to improve, which is a constructive response. Ben is not voicing his negative feelings about less work. Ben continues to show up for work and does not neglect his duties. Ben is waiting for things to get better rather than looking for a different job. Ben is passive, rather than active in his behavior.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.91) Job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into ________ when employees feel or perceive they have many available alternatives. This can happen when employees have high human capital.A) neglectB) engagementC) tardinessD) turnoverE) absenteeismAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover when employment opportunities are plentiful because employees perceive it is easy to move. When employees have high “human capital” (high education, high ability), job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover because they have, or perceive, many available alternatives.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.92) Under which of the following conditions is job dissatisfaction less predictive of turnover?A) when employees consider their current jobs to be unattractiveB) when employees are presented with unsolicited job offersC) when employment opportunities are plentifulD) when employees are highly skilledE) when employees are highly educatedAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) If an employee is presented with an unsolicited job offer, job dissatisfaction is less predictive of turnover because the employee is more likely leaving because of “pull” (the lure of the other job) than “push” (the unattractiveness of the current job). Similarly, job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover when employment opportunities are plentiful because employees perceive it is easy to move. Finally, when employees have high “human capital” (high education, high ability), job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover because they have, or perceive, many available alternatives.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.93) Under which of the following conditions is job dissatisfaction notlikely to translate into turnover?A) lack of job prospectsB) alternative job prospectsC) high human capitalD) ease of job mobilityE) high employee educationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The satisfaction—turnover relationship is affected by alternative job prospects. Job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover when employment opportunities are plentiful because employees perceive it is easy to move. When employees have high “human capital” (high education, high ability), job dissatisfaction is more likely to translate into turnover because they have, or perceive, many available alternatives.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.94) Dispatch Heroes Inc. is a medium-sized logistics company. The management is facing tough times as the workers are dissatisfied and are engaging in a number of deviant workplace behaviors such as stealing, undue socializing, and tardiness. The management is considering enforcing several restrictions to curb these counterproductive behaviors. What would be a better way to deal with such forms of workplace deviance?A) Employers must take corrective action to stop the unwanted activities.B) Employers should attack the source of the problem, i.e., the dissatisfaction.C) Employers must introduce surveillance to ensure smooth flow of work.D) The management must suspend employees who engage in deviant workplace behaviors.E) The management must restrict the activities that adversely affect productivity.Answer:  BExplanation:  B) Workers who don’t like their jobs “get even” in various ways—and because those ways can be quite creative, controlling only one behavior, such as with an absence control policy, leaves the root cause untouched. To effectively control the undesirable consequences of job dissatisfaction, employers should attack the source of the problem—the dissatisfaction—rather than try to control the different responses.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.95) A study conducted by a management consulting firm found that companies with higher morale ________.A) experienced a larger growth in their stock pricesB) experienced a larger growth in market shareC) experienced a smaller decrease in their stock pricesD) experienced a smaller decrease in their market shareE) had more dissatisfied employeesAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) One study by a management consulting firm separated large organizations into high morale (more than 70 percent of employees expressed overall job satisfaction) and medium or low morale (fewer than 70 percent). The stock prices of companies in the high morale group grew 19.4 percent, compared with 10 percent for the medium or low morale group.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.96) Common causes of counterproductive work behaviors include all of the following except________.A) lack of job satisfactionB) being in the wrong line of workC) being in the wrong organizationD) lack of promotional opportunitiesE) abusive supervisionAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) While a lack of promotional opportunities may lead to job dissatisfaction, there is no indication that a lack of promotional opportunities leads directly to CWB.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.97) ________ may help to lower counterproductive work behaviors within groups.A) Citizenship behaviorsB) Strict punishmentsC) Team-based incentivesD) Individual-based incentivesE) Personality testingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Along with creating strong teams and providing formalized policies, team-based incentives may help lower CWB contagion.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.98) Job embeddedness refers to connections to the job and community ________.A) that result in an increased commitment to the organizationB) that allows the employee to strictly focus on one or two tasksC) which provides the highest levels of job satisfactionD) which strengthens an organizational cultureE) that allow supervisors to have strict control over their employeesAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Job embeddedness is the concept of being highly immersed in all aspects of one’s job which allows for higher levels of commitment.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.99) Job embeddedness predicts important employment outcomes of ________.A) organizational citizenship behaviorsB) counterproductive work behaviorsC) job satisfactionD) absenteeismE) job performanceAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) While job satisfaction is affected by OCB, CWB, absenteeism, and job performance, it is not directly predicted by job embeddedness itself.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.100) Why should managers be interested in their employees’ attitudes?A) They result from behavior. B) They cause problems.C) They give warnings of potential problems. D) They are generally low.E) They result in cognitive dissonance.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Managers should be interested in their employees’ attitudes because attitudes give warnings of potential problems and influence behavior, resulting in higher or lower profits and productivity. Some researchers believe that attitudes follow behavior, not the other way around. Although negative attitudes can cause problems, there are many positive reasons managers should look at job attitudes. Job satisfaction and attitudes in the United States are generally high. Cognitive dissonance is the result of a disparity between an attitude and a behavior.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.101) The most important thing a manager can do to raise employee satisfaction is to focus on ________.A) employee payB) benefitsC) work hoursD) intrinsic parts of the jobE) employee productivityAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) The most important thing managers can do to raise employee satisfaction is focus on the intrinsic parts of the job, such as making the work challenging and interesting. Although paying employees poorly will likely not attract high-quality employees to the organization, or keep high performers, managers should realize that high pay alone is unlikely to create a satisfying work environment.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.102) Voice is an active and constructive response to dissatisfaction.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Voice response is the dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.103) Actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions is part of the loyalty response to dissatisfaction.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The loyalty response means passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, including speaking up for the organization in the face of external criticism and trusting the organization and its management to do the right thing.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.104) Neglect is an active and destructive response to dissatisfaction.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The neglect response to dissatisfaction passively allows conditions to worsen.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.105) Evidence suggests that employees in Eastern cultures have higher levels of job satisfaction than those in Western cultures.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Evidence suggests employees in Western cultures have higher levels of job satisfaction than those in Eastern cultures.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.106) Creating a satisfied workforce guarantees successful organizational performance.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Creating a satisfied workforce is hardly a guarantee of successful organizational performance, but evidence strongly suggests that whatever managers can do to improve employee attitudes will likely result in heightened organizational effectiveness.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.107) List and explain the four ways employees can express job dissatisfaction.Answer:  Employees can express dissatisfaction in four ways: exit, voice, loyalty, and neglect. These four responses differ along two dimensions: constructive/destructive and active/passive.1) Behavior directed toward leaving the organization is defined as exit behavior. It is active and destructive. 2) Voice involves actively and constructively attempting to improve conditions, including suggesting improvements, discussing problems with superiors, and some forms of union activity. 3) Loyalty involves passively but optimistically waiting for conditions to improve, hence it is passive and constructive. 4) Neglect is passively allowing conditions to worsen, including chronic absenteeism or lateness, reduced effort, and increased error rate, hence it is a passive and destructive response. Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.108) Clara is a clerk at a retail outlet. She earns $35,000 a year. She is allowed to work her schedule around her daughter’s school athletic events, and because she has seniority over the other clerks, rarely has to work holidays.Jeff is a new designer for an engineering firm. He earns $75,000 a year. He must be at the office Monday through Friday from 8:00 to 5:00. His wife attends all their children’s school events. His job is stressful, and if a project is due, he often works weekends and sometimes holidays, although from home.How would you compare Clara and Jeff’s levels of job satisfaction? Describe how you would measure their satisfaction and name at least three major job attitudes that play a part in each of their satisfaction levels.Answer:  Clara might be less satisfied than Jeff in the pure measurement of pay because she makes less than the $40,000 level required for a comfortable living. However, Clara probably has a higher attitude of perceived organizational support, because her company allows her a flexible schedule around her family, whereas Jeff’s company does not. Clara shows a level of organizational commitment because she has seniority and has been with the company for at least some time, whereas Jeff is new, and most likely has a low level of organizational commitment. Jeff probably has a higher level of job involvement due to the challenging nature of his work. However, the stress might reduce this as a positive job attitude. They are both probably satisfied with their jobs, but if Jeff isn’t given more flexibility he might look elsewhere.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.109) Patrice has just been passed up for a promotion and is still earning less than $40,000 a year. He is experiencing a very low level of job satisfaction. Describe two active responses that Patrice might take due to his dissatisfaction. Design a plan that Patrice’s immediate supervisor can use to diffuse the situation and keep Patrice on board with the company.Answer:  Patrice’s active responses could be to voice his dissatisfaction to his supervisor, lobbying for his promotion or seeking reasons why he wasn’t promoted. His other active option would be to exit the company, beginning immediately to look for another job. If the immediate supervisor is aware of Patrice’s dissatisfaction and values him as an employee he needs to proactively discuss why Patrice was passed over for the promotion. He could design a training program, or longer term plan of how Patrice can reach his income and responsibility goals, with small measurable steps that would receive rewards, such as lunch gift cards, or time off in place of the income that Patrice feels he is denied.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.110) Elisa is upset with her supervisor because she was denied her requested vacation days, which were given to another worker. She is experiencing a very low level of job satisfaction, but cannot afford to quit her job. Describe three negative, passive responses that Elisa might take due to her dissatisfaction. Imagine that her manager actively catches her in a manifestation of workplace deviance. Predict the outcome of Elisa’s behavior.Answer:  Because Elisa cannot quit her job, her responses will be to passively neglect her work. She could manifest this in a number of ways, from increased absenteeism, to poor customer service, to workplace deviance, such as surfing the Internet during work hours, or stealing work supplies. If Elisa’s manager were to catch her surfing the Internet he or she would most likely reprimand Elisa, increasing her level of dissatisfaction and level of job neglect. A better solution would be to question Elisa as to what she is doing, and perhaps opening up lines of communication which would allow her a chance to actively and positively voice her grievance.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.111) Discuss how job satisfaction can impact employee productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.Answer:  At the individual level, the evidence suggests that productivity is likely to lead to satisfaction. There is a consistent negative relationship between satisfaction and absenteeism, but the correlation is moderate to weak. Satisfaction is also negatively related to turnover, but the correlation is stronger than what was found for absenteeism.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.112) One of your coworkers has begun to exhibit a prevalent CWP: surfing the Internet during work hours. What does this tell you about your coworker and what can you do to reverse the issue?Answer:  While responses to this will vary, student responses should touch upon Internet surfing as a withdrawal behavior which is indicative of boredom or lack of motivation. As the student is not in a managerial position, an appropriate response would be to help motivate their coworker or to help them seek more challenging responsibilities.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.113) You have been hired as the manager of a casual dining restaurant. After a few days on the job, you notice that one server, Graham, seems to be unhappy and his attitude might be spreading. Please articulate what plan of action you would take to address Graham’s attitude. What is the reasoning for your actions?Answer:  Answers will vary but should include some type of job satisfaction survey, be it quantitative or qualitative.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  SynthesisLO:  3.7 Identify four employee responses to job dissatisfaction.

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