Geography

Chapter Review Questions

GEOGRAPHY AND ITS GEOLOGICAL RELEVANCE The principle of uniformitarianism s that the natural laws existing today are constant all throughout the universe with respect to time and space and that the earth came into being by gradual changes on the physical attributes of the earth for thousands of years, in contrary to the purported claims of catastrophism that the formation of the earth was entirely influenced by some biblical catastrophic events like the great flood. Meteorite impacts, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes account to uniformitarianism since the processes involved in these natural events is in conformity with the gradual changes in the physical attributes of the earth as predicated by uniformitarianism.
Geologic processes involve dynamic changes or occurrences due to the natural forces that acts upon any celestial object like the earth. It affects our daily life in different ways. Because of some changes in temperature, some aberrant behaviours of the climate physically distract us – excessive rains and violent storms. The melting of the ice in the Arctic Ocean elevates the water level of the earth which immerses low lying areas and even kills human beings. In the earth’s material, the continental drifts and seismic quaking affects us terribly when it triggers monumental waves in the ocean.
The rocks that were found in the moon and the rocks that can be found in the surface of the earth both started from the dust and the clouds of gas that amalgamated and joined together all around the sun which eventually turned into planets and therefore they have mostly identical elemental contents. The moon materialized as a lump slashed from the body of the earth due to some celestial collisions occurred millions of years ago. It is also possible that planets like Venus and Mars could have the same geological contents because of their close proximity from the earth.
A mineral is a naturally arising solid chemical substance molded via geological progressions. It contains a distinctive chemical arrangement, very structured atoms, and exact physical traits. Diamonds, Emeralds and gold nuggets are minerals simply because they occurred naturally, although gold nuggets are just mostly crystalline. Diamond is a perfect example of a mineral. It is approximately made up of carbon. Beach sand, water, fishbone, vitamin pill and wood are not minerals mainly because most of them are not geologically emerging. Water cannot be considered as mineral because it is just made of gaseous elements: hydrogen and oxygen.
Rocks found in the area where I live are about 100 million years old. It is manifested by the rock formations as well as the elements present in the rocks. I chose Pliocene. Rocks on this epoch were identified through fossils and remains of some old geological objects. Gastropod Oliva Sayana, rhinos and horses with three toes are the most characteristic fossils. Pliocene rocks are the best sample of rocks found. They are scattered in China and some other Asian countries.
Venus and Earth have a lot of similarities but they have many differences as well. Venus, unlike the Earth, has weaker gravity and magnetic field is created by interacting with the ionosphere. The pressure and temperature in Venus is enough to rip your body apart. Earth’s oceans will evaporate if it goes nearer the sun because the atmosphere disappears and will boil the ocean.
If dinosaurs were not wiped out during the K-T extinction, it would have affected the ecosystem of the world. Dinosaurs find their diet on smaller mammals. If they have not died out, the costs would have been remarkable reduction of mammals in the world’s ecology.
Reference:
Scholarpedia:the peer-reviewed open access encyclopedia. Retrieved from.
http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Main_Page

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