First of all, the paper was made. Islamic world used paper made out of linen rags and hemp rather than tree pulp. After that ink had to be made and then the pens and guidelines. After all, materials were ready a scribe wrote down the text, leaving spaces as directed for drawings. Once the writing part was complete the painters were given the pages for the illustrations. Usually, a number of artists worked on a single manuscript the reason being that every artist had a particular speciality and he was given that work only. for instance, one could make portraits better while another could draw battle scenes. Once the drawing was done it had to be painted and the colours used were taken from nature. Minerals were used for the purpose, for instance, malachite for green and orpiment for yellow. Sometimes, however, there were also substitutes used because these minerals were pretty costly. Following the completion of the paintings, the work of the illuminators and gilders began who were responsible for the final look of the book, for example adding headings and frames. Once this was also done the pages were sewn and bound and a book was ready.